Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 33–61 | Cite as

Mathematics Teaching as a Deliberate Practice: An Investigation of Elementary Pre-service Teachers' Reflective Thinking During Student Teaching

  • Amy Roth McDuffieEmail author


In this case study I examine the reflectivepractices of two elementary pre-serviceteachers during their student teachinginternship. I extend current views ofreflective practice to create a framework for a`deliberate practitioner'. With this framework,I investigate the pre-service teachers'thinking with regard to reflective processesand how they use their pedagogical contentknowledge in their practices. My findingsindicate that the pre-service teachers usetheir pedagogical content knowledge inanticipating problematic events, and inreflecting on problematic events ininstruction. However, limits in pedagogicalcontent knowledge and lack of confidence impedethe pre-service teachers' reflection while inthe act of teaching. They were more likely toreflect on their practices outside of the actof teaching. Implications for teacher educatorsand pre-service teachers are discussed.

mathematics education pedagogical content knowledge reflective practice student teaching teacher education 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alasuutari, P. (1995). Researching culture: Qualitative method and cultural studies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  2. Ball, D. & Bass, H. (2000). Interweaving content and pedagogy in teaching and learning to teach: Knowing and using mathematics. In J. Boaler (Ed.), Multiple perspectives on mathematics teaching and learning: International perspectives on mathematics education (pp. 83–104). London: Ablex.Google Scholar
  3. Ball, D., Lubienski, S. & Mewborn, D. (2001). Mathematics. In V. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (4th edition) (pp. 433–456). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
  4. Blumer, H. (1969). Symbolic interactionism. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bogdan, R. & Biklen, S. (1992). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  6. Borko, H., Eisenhart, M., Brown, C., Underhill, R., Jones, D. & Agard, P. (1992). Learning to teach hard mathematics: Do novice teachers and their instructors give up too easily? Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 23(3), 194–222.Google Scholar
  7. Borko, H. & Putnam, R. (1996). Learning to teach. In D. Berliner & R. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 673–708). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  8. Campbell, L. (1997). How teachers interpret MI theory. Educational Leadership, 55(1), 14–19.Google Scholar
  9. Carpenter, T., Fennema, E., Franke, M., Levi, L. & Empson, S. (1999). Children's mathematics: Cognitively guided instruction. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  10. Christensen, D. (1996). The professional knowledge-research base for teacher education. In J. Sikula, T. Buttery & E. Guyton (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education (2nd edition) (pp. 38–52). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  11. Cobb, P. & Bauersfeld, H. (1995). Introduction: The coordination of psychological and sociological perspectives in mathematics education. In P. Cobb & H. Bauersfeld (Eds.), The emergence of mathematical meaning: Interaction in classroom cultures (pp. 1–16). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  12. Colton, A. & Sparks-Langer, G. (1993). A conceptual framework to guide the development of teacher reflection and decision making. Journal of Teacher Education, 44(1), 45–54.Google Scholar
  13. Corwin, R. (1996). Talking mathematics: Supporting children's voices. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  14. Dewey, J. (1910). How we think. Boston: DC Heath.Google Scholar
  15. Eicholz, R. Addison-Wesley mathematics. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  16. Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  17. Grossman, P. (1990). The making of a teacher: Teacher knowledge and teacher education. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  18. Hubbard, R. & Power, B. (1993). The art of classroom inquiry: A handbook for teacher researchers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  19. LeCompte, M., Millroy, W. & Preissle, J. (1992). The handbook of qualitative research in education. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  20. McIntyre, D. Byrd, D. & Foxx, S. (1996). Field and laboratory experiences. In J. Sikula, T. Buttery & E. Guyton (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 171–193). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  21. McNiff, J., Lomax, P. & Whitehead, J. (1996). You and your action research project. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  22. Mewborn, D. (1999). Reflective thinking among pre-service elementary mathematics teachers. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 30(3), 316–341.Google Scholar
  23. Miles, M. & Huberman, A. (1994). Qualitative data analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  24. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (1989). Curriculum and evaluation standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.Google Scholar
  25. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (1991). Professional standards for teaching mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.Google Scholar
  26. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.Google Scholar
  27. Russell, T. & Munby, H. (1991). Reframing: The role of experience in developing teachers' professional knowledge. In D. Schön (Ed.), The reflective turn (pp. 164–188). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  28. Schifter, D., Bastable, V. & Russell, S. (1999). Making meaning for operations. Parsippany, NJ: Dale Seymour Publications.Google Scholar
  29. Schifter, D. & Fosnot, C. (1993). Reconstructing mathematics education: Stories of teachers meeting the challenge of reform. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  30. Schön, D. (1983). The reflective practitioner. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  31. Schön, D. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  32. Shulman, L. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4–14.Google Scholar
  33. Shulman, L. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1–22.Google Scholar
  34. Stake, R. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  35. Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (1990). The basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  36. Sullivan, S. & Glanz, J. (2000). Supervision that improves teaching: Strategies and techniques. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  37. TERC. (1998). Investigations in number data and space. White Plains, NY: Dale Seymour.Google Scholar
  38. Valli, L. (Ed.) (1992). Reflective teacher education: Cases and critiques. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  39. Valli, L. (2000). Connecting teacher development and school improvement: Ironic consequences of a pre-service action research course. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16, 715–730.Google Scholar
  40. Van de Walle, J. (1998). Elementary and middle school mathematics: Teaching developmentally. New York: Addison Wesley Longman.Google Scholar
  41. Zeichner, K. (1993, August). Research on teacher thinking and different views of reflective practice in teaching and teacher education. Paper presented at the Sixth International Conference of the International Study Association on Teacher Thinking, Goteborg, Sweden.Google Scholar
  42. Zeichner, K. & Liston, D. (1996). Reflective teaching: An introduction. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of EducationWashington State University Tri-CitiesRichlandUSA, E-mail

Personalised recommendations