Projectile/target impact crater systems involving soda-lime glass/1100 aluminum, ferritic stainless steel/1100 aluminum, and tungsten carbide/1100 aluminum (corresponding to projectile densities of 2.2, 7.89, and ∼17 Mg (m3) at impact velocities ranging from 0.56 to 3.99 km/s were examined by light metallography, SEM, and TEM. Plots of crater depth/crater diameter ratio (p/D c) versus impact velocity exhibited anomalous humps with p/D c ranging from 0.8 to 5.5 between 1 and 2 km/s, with hypervelocity threshold or steady-state values of p/D c (>5 km/s) ranging from 0.4 to 1.0; with the p/D c values increasing with increasing projectile density in each case. This hump-shaped regime, with exaggerated target penetration depths, appears to occur because projectiles remain relatively intact and unfragmented. The crater geometry begins to change when the projectile fragmentation onset velocity (>2 km/s) is exceeded and fragmentation increases with increasing impact velocity. Computer simulations and validation of these simulations were developed which fairly accurately represented residual crater shapes/geometries and correlated experimentally measured microhardness maps with simulated residual yield stress contour maps. Validated computer simulations allowed representative extrapolations of impact craters well beyond the laboratory where melting and solidification occurred at the crater wall, especially for hypervelocity impact (>5 km/s).
This is a preview of subscription content,to check access.
Access this article
Similar content being viewed by others
J. R. Baker, Int. J. Impact Engr. 17 (1995) 25.
R. P. Bernhard and F. H</del>Örz, ibid. 17 (1995) 69.
L. E. Murr, S. A. Quinones, E. Ferreyra, T. A. Ayala, O. L. Valerio, F. HÖrz and R. P. Bernhard, Mater. Sci. Engr.A 256 (1998) 166.
O. L. Valerio, V. S. Hernandez, S. A. Quinones, L. E. Murr and F. HÖrz, in "Fundamental Issues and Applications of Shock-Wave and High-Strain-Rate Phenomena", edited by K. P. Staudhammer, L. E. Murr and M. A. Meyers (Elsevier Science Ltd., Amsterdam, 2001) Chap. 49, p. 383.
H. A. Zook, Lunar and Planetary Sci. 21 (1990) 112.
L. E. Murr and W. H. Kinard, Amer. Scient. 81 (1993) 152.
J. A. M. Mcdonnel (ed.), "Hypervelocity Impact in Space" (Univ. of Kent, Canterbury, U.K., 1992).
J. A. Joselyn and E. C. Whipple, Amer. Scient. 78 (1990) 126.
N. Mcbride, S. F. Green and J.A. Mcdonnel, Adv. Space Res. 23(1) (1999) 73.
S. A. Quinones and L. E. Murr, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 166 (1998) 763.
N. K. Birnbaum, M. Cowler, M. Itoh, M. Katayama and H. Obata, AUTODYN-An Interactive, Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis Program for Microcomputers Through Supercomputers, 9th Int. Conf. on Structural Mechanics in Reactive Technology, Lausanne, August, 1987.
C. T. Hayhurst, H. J. Ranson, D. J. Gardner and N. K. Birnbaum, Int. J. Impact Engr. 17 (1995) 375.
G. R. Johnson and W. H. Cook, A. Constitutive Model and Data for Metals Subjected to Large Strains, High Strain Rates, and Temperatures, in Proc. 7th Int. Symposium on Ballistics, The Hague, 1983.
E. A. Taylor, K. T. Sembells, C. J. Hayhurst, L. Kay and M. J. Burchell, Int. J. Impact Engr. 23 (1999) 895.
M. A. Meyers, "Dynamic Behavior of Materials" (Wiley, NY, 1994).
M. H. Rice, R. G. Mcqueen and J. M. Walsh, Solid State Phys. 6 (1958) 1.
R. G. Mcqueen, S. P. Marsh, J. W. Taylor, J. N. Fritz and W. J. Carter, in "The Equation of State of Solids from Shock Wave Studies, High Velocity Impact Phenomena", edited by R. Kinslow (Academic Press, NY, 1970) p. 230.
T. H. See, M. K. Allbrooks, D. R. Atkinson, C. R. Simon and M. E. Zolensky, Meteroid and Debris Impact Features Documented on The Long Duration Exposure Facility, NASA-JSC Report No. 24608, 1990.
L. E. Murr, C.-S. Niou, S. A. Quinones and K. S. Murr, Scripta Metall. et Mater. 27 (1992) 101.
D. E. Grady and M. E. Kipp, Impact Failure and Fragmentation Properties of Metals, Sandia Report SAND98-0387 Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, March, 1998.
J. H. G. Livingstone, K. Verolme and C. J. Hayhurst, Int. J. Impact Engr. 26 (2001) 453.
About this article
Cite this article
Valerio-Flores, O.L., Murr, L.E., Hernandez, V.S. et al. Observations and simulations of the low velocity-to-hypervelocity impact crater transition for a range of penetrator densities into thick aluminum targets. Journal of Materials Science 39, 6271–6289 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JMSC.0000043597.72588.d1