Journal of Computational Neuroscience

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 113–127 | Cite as

Effects of the Activity of the Internal Globus Pallidus-Pedunculopontine Loop on the Transmission of the Subthalamic Nucleus-External Globus Pallidus-Pacemaker Oscillatory Activities to the Cortex

  • Arash Hadipour Niktarash
  • Gholam Ali Shahidi


Resting tremor is the most specific sign for idiopathic Parkinson' disease. It has been proposed that parkinsonian tremor results from the activity of the central oscillators. One of the hypotheses, which have been proposed about the possible principles underlying such central oscillations, is the subthalamic nucleus (STN)-external globus pallidus (GPe)-pacemaker hypothesis. Activity from the central oscillator is proposed to be transmitted via trans-cortical pathways to the periphery. A computational model of the basal ganglia (BG) is proposed for simulating the effects of the internal globus pallidus (GPi)-pedunculopontine (PPN) loop activity on the transmission of the STN-GPe-pacemaker oscillatory activities to the cortex, based on known anatomy and physiology of the BG. According to the result of the simulation, the GPi-PPN loop activity can suppress the transmission of the STN-GPe-pacemaker oscillatory activities to the cortex. This suppressive effect is controlled by various factors such as the strength of the synaptic connection from the PPN to the GPi, the strength of the synaptic connection from the GPi to the PPN, the spontaneous tonic activities of the GPi and PPN, the direct excitatory projections from the STN to the PPN, the frequency of the STN oscillatory burst activity, the duration of the STN burst, and the maximum T-type calcium channel conductance in the type-I PPN neurons.

parkinsonian tremor basal ganglia pedunculopontine nucleus globus pallidus subthalamic nucleus thalamus oscillations computational models 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arash Hadipour Niktarash
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gholam Ali Shahidi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyHazrat Rasool-e-Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS)
  2. 2.Tehran, Iran; School of Cognitive Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and MathematicsTehranIran

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