Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 423–432

Alternative Seating for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Effects on Classroom Behavior

Article

Abstract

A single subject, withdrawal design was used to investigate the effects of therapy balls as seating on engagement and in-seat behavior of young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In addition, social validity was assessed to evaluate teachers' opinions regarding the intervention. During baseline and withdrawal (A phases) participants used their typical classroom seating device (chair, bench or carpet square). During the intervention (B phases) participants sat on therapy balls. Results indicated substantial improvements in engagement and in-seat behavior when participants were seated on therapy balls. Social validity findings indicated that the teachers' preferred the therapy balls. This study suggests therapy balls as classroom seating may facilitate engagement and in-seat behavior and create opportunities to provide effective instruction.

Autism sensory strategies school based interventions classroom behavior dynamic seating early childhood 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Ayres, A. J. (1972). Sensory integration and learning disorders. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Service.Google Scholar
  2. Baranek, G. T. (1998). Sensory processing in persons with autism and developmental disabilities: Considerations for research and clinical practice. Sensory Integration Special Interest Section Quarterly, 21, 1–3.Google Scholar
  3. Baranek, G. T., Foster, L. G., & Berkson, G (1997). Tactile defensiveness and stereotyped behaviors. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 51, 91–95.Google Scholar
  4. Bertrand, J., Mars, A., Boyle, C., Bove, F., Yeargin-Allsop, M., & Decoufle, P. (2001). Prevalence of autism in a United States population: The Brick Township, New Jersey, investigation. Pediatrics, 108, 1155–1161.Google Scholar
  5. Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (1987). Applied behavior analysis. Upper Saddle River: Merrill/Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  6. Dawson, G., & Watling, R. L (2000). Interventions to facilitate auditory, visual, and motor integration in autism: A review of the evidence. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 30, 415–421.Google Scholar
  7. Dunn, W. (2000). Habit: What's the brain got to do with it? The Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 20, 6–20.Google Scholar
  8. Dunn, W. (2001). The sensations of everyday life: Empirical, theoretical, and pragmatic considerations. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 55, 608–620.Google Scholar
  9. Elliot, C. D. (1990). Differential abilities scale (DAS), New York: Psychological Corp.Google Scholar
  10. Greenspan, S. I., & Wieder, S (1997a). Developmental patterns and outcomes in infants and children with disorders in relating and communicating: A chart review of 200 cases of children with autistic spectrum diagnoses. Journal of Developmental and Learning Disorders, 1, 87–142.Google Scholar
  11. Greenspan, S. I., & Wieder, S (1997b). An integrated developmental approach to interventions for young children with severe difficulties in relating and communicating. Zero to Three, 17, 5–17.Google Scholar
  12. Huebner, R. A. (2001). Autism: A sensorimotor approach. Gaithersburg, Maryland: Aspen Publishers Inc.Google Scholar
  13. Illi, U. (1994). Balls instead of chairs in the classroom? Swiss Journal of Physical Education. June (translation).Google Scholar
  14. Johnson-Ecker, C., & Parham, L. D (2000). The evaluation of sensory processing: a validity study using contrasting groups. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 54, 494–503.Google Scholar
  15. Kazdin, A. E. (1982). Single-case research design. New York: Oxford Press.Google Scholar
  16. Kientz, M. A., & Dunn, W (1997). A comparison of the performance of children with and without autism on the Sensory Profile. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 51, 530–537.Google Scholar
  17. Kimball, J. (1999). Sensory integration frame of reference: Postulates regarding change and application to practice. In P. Kramer, and J., Hinojosa (Eds.), Frames of Reference for Pediatric Occupational Therapy. 2nd ed., Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: 169–204.Google Scholar
  18. Koomar, J. A., & Bundy, A. C (1991). The art and science of creating direct intervention from theory. In A. G. Fisher, E. A. Murray, & A. C. Bundy (Eds.), Sensory integration theory and practice (pp. 251–317). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.Google Scholar
  19. Lear, C., & Pomeroy, S (1994). Office ergonomics-Part 2. Physical Therapy Forum, 24, 3–4.Google Scholar
  20. Lovaas, O. I., Newson, C., & Hickman, C (1987). Self-stimulatory behavior and perceptual reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 20, 45–68.Google Scholar
  21. McBride, J. (1993). Class has ball with unusual furniture. Medford Mail Tribune. 1A, 4A.Google Scholar
  22. Mulligan, S. (2001). Classroom strategies used by teachers of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 20, 25–44.Google Scholar
  23. National Research Council (2001). Educating Children with Autism. Committee on Educational Interventions for Children with Autism. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  24. Quill, K. A. (2000). Do-watch-listen-say. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co Inc.Google Scholar
  25. Richards, S., Taylor, R., Ramasamy, R., & Richards, R (1999). Single subject research: Applications in educational and clinical settings. San Diego: Singular.Google Scholar
  26. Rogers, S. J. (1998). Empirically supported comprehensive treatment for young children with autism. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27, 168–179.Google Scholar
  27. Royeen, C., & Lane, S (1991).Tactile processing and sensory defensiveness. Sensory integration: Theory and practice. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.Google Scholar
  28. Schilling, D. L., Washington, K., Billingsley, F., & Deitz, J (2003). Classroom seating for children with attention deficit hyperactivity: Balls versus chairs. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 57, 534–541.Google Scholar
  29. Schroder, T. (1997). Funball rolls into the fitness world. De Telegraff, Amsterdam, Netherlands (translation).Google Scholar
  30. Spaulding, A., Kelly, L., Santopietro, J., & Posner-Mayer, J (1999). Kids on the ball. Champaign: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  31. Sugai, G., & Rowe, P (1984). The effect of self-recording on outof-seat behavior of an EMR student. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded, February 23–28.Google Scholar
  32. Trott, M., Laurel, M., & Windeck, S (1993). Sense abilities. Understanding sensory integration. Tucson: Therapy Skill Builders.Google Scholar
  33. Watling, R. L., Deitz, J., Kanny, E. M., & McLaughlin, J. F (1999). Current practice of occupational therapy for children with autism. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 53, 489–505.Google Scholar
  34. Watling, R. L., Deitz, J., & White, O (2001). Comparison of sensory profile scores of young children with and without autism spectrum disorders. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 55, 416–423.Google Scholar
  35. Wieider, S. (1996). Integrated treatment approaches for young children with multisystem developmental disorder. Infants and Young Children, 8, 24–34.Google Scholar
  36. Williams, M., & Shellenberger, S (1996). How Does Your Engine Run? Albuquerque: Therapy Works.Google Scholar
  37. Williams, M., & Shellenberger, S (1994). The alert program for self-regulation. Sensory Integration Special Interest Section Newsletter, 17, 1–3.Google Scholar
  38. Williamson, G., & Anzalone, M (1997). Sensory integration: A key component of the evaluation and treatment of young children with severe difficulties in relating and communicating. Zero to Three, 17, 29–36.Google Scholar
  39. Witt, D., & Talbot, R (1998). Let's get our kids on the ball. Advance for Physical Therapists, February, 27–28.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of WashingtonSeattle
  2. 2.Silverman HallSyracuse

Personalised recommendations