International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 25, Issue 5, pp 983–1000 | Cite as

Orangutan Nesting Behavior in Disturbed Forest of Sabah, Malaysia: Implications for Nest Census

  • Marc Ancrenaz
  • Romain Calaque
  • Isabelle Lackman-Ancrenaz

Abstract

High concentrations of orangutans remain in the multiple-use forests of the Lower Kinabatangan, Sabah, Malaysia. Compared to primary forest, the habitat is highly fragmented, characterized by a low tree density (332 stems/ha), small tree size (83.6% of trees are <20 m high), low basal area (18 m2/ha), abundance of canopy gaps and high level of soil disturbance. The forest structure and composition influence orangutan nesting patterns, and thus directly influence the results of nest surveys used to determine orangutan population size. In logged forests, tall and large trees are the preferred nesting sites of orangutans. The scarcity of suitable nesting sites in the logged-over forests of Kinabatangan, could partly explain the lower daily rate of nest construction (r = 1.00) versus those of other orangutan populations. The nest decay rate t recorded at the study site (average ± SD = 202 ± 151 days) strongly depends on the species of tree in which a nest is built. Our results illustrate that the nest-related parameters used for orangutan censuses fluctuate among habitat types and emphasize the need to determine specific values of r for specific orangutan populations and of t for different tree species in order to achieve accurate analysis of census data.

orangutan (Pongo pygmaeusnesting behavior overlogged forest nest census Sabah 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Baldwin, P. J., Sabater, Pi. J., McGrew, W. C., and Tutin, C. E. G. (1981). Comparisons of nests made by different populations of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Primates 22(4): 474–486.Google Scholar
  2. Bernstein, I. S. (1969). Acomparison of nesting patterns among the three great apes. In Bourne, G. H. (ed.), The Chimpanzee, Vol. 1: Anatomy, Behaviour and Diseases, Karger, Basel, Switzerland, pp. 393–402.Google Scholar
  3. Blom, A., Almasi, A., Heitkonig, I. M. A., Kpanou, J.-B., and Prins, H. T. (2001). A survey of the apes in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic: A comparison between the census and survey methods of estimating the gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) nest group density. Afr. J. Ecol. 39: 98–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brownlow, A. R., Plumptre, A. J., Reynolds, V., and Ward, R. (2001). Sources of variation in the nesting behavior of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Budongo Forest, Uganda. Am. J. Primatol. 55: 49–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Buij, R., Singleton, I., Krakauer, E., and van Schaik, C. P. (2003). Rapid assessment of orangutan density. Biol. Cons. 114: 103–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cannon, C. H., Peart, D. R., Leighton, M., and Kartawinata, K. (1994). The structure of lowland rainforest after selective logging in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Forest Ecol. Manage. 67: 49–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Felton, A. M., Engstrom, L. M., Felton, A., and Knott, C. D. (2003). Orangutan population density, forest structure and fruit availability in hand-logged and unlogged peat swamp forests in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biol. Cons. 114: 91–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fox, J. E. D. (1978). The natural vegetation of Sabah, Malaysia. I. The physical environment and classification. Trop. Ecol. 19(2): 218–239.Google Scholar
  9. Fruth, B., and Hohman, G. (1993). Ecological and behavioral aspects of nest building in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus). Ethology 94: 113–126.Google Scholar
  10. Fruth, B., and Hohman, G. (1994). Nests: Living artefacts of recent apes? Curr. Anthrop. 35(3): 310–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fruth, B., and Hohman, G. (1996). Nest building behavior in the great apes: The great leap forward ? In McGrew, W. C., Marchant, L. F., and Nishida, T. (eds.), Great Ape Societies, Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 225–239.Google Scholar
  12. Goodall, J. M. (1967). Nest building behavior in the free ranging chimpanzee. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 102: 455–467.Google Scholar
  13. Haile, N. S., and Wong, N. P. Y. (1965). The Geology and Mineral Resources of Den. Peninsula Sabah, Printing Office, Kucing, Sarawak, Malaysia.Google Scholar
  14. Hashimoto, C. (1995). Population census of the chimpanzees in the Kalinzu Forest, Uganda: Comparison between methods with nest counts. Primates 36(4): 477–488.Google Scholar
  15. Horr, D. A. (1977). Orangutan maturation: Growing up in a female world. In Chevalier-Skolnikoff, S., and Poirier, E. (eds.), Primate Biosocial Development: Biological, Social and Ecological Determinants, Garland, New York, USA, pp. 289–321.Google Scholar
  16. Johns, A. G. (1997). Timber Production and Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Rainforests, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  17. Johnson, A. E., Knott, C. D., Pamungkas, B., Pasaribu, M., and Marshall, A. J. (in press). A survey of the orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) population in and around Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia based on nest counts. Biol. Cons. Google Scholar
  18. Kano, T. (1992). The Last Ape, Stanford University Press, CA.Google Scholar
  19. Kortlandt, A. (1992). On chimpanzee dormitories and early hominid home sites. Curr. Anthro-pol. 33: 399–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kurt, F. (1971). IUCN unpublished report on wildlife conditions in North Sumatra, Medan, Indonesia.Google Scholar
  21. Lackman-Ancrenaz, I., Ancrenaz, M., and Saburi, R. (2001). The Kinabatangan Orangutan Conservation Project. In The Apes: Challenge for the 21st Century, Conference Proceedings, May 10-13, 2000, Brookfield, Illinois, pp. 262–265.Google Scholar
  22. MacKinnon, J. R. (1972). The Behaviour and Ecology of the OrangutanPongo pygmaeus With Relation to Other Apes, PhD Thesis, Oriel College, Oxford, 135 pp.Google Scholar
  23. MacKinnon, J. R. (1974). The behavior and ecology of wild orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Anim. Behav. 22: 3–74.Google Scholar
  24. Morrogh-Bernard, H., Husson, S., Page, S. E., and Rieley, J. O. (2003). Population status of the Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) in the Sebangau peat swamp forest, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biol. Cons. 110: 141–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Newberry, D. McC., Campbell, E. J. F., Lee, Y. F., Ridsale, C. E., and Still, M. J. (1992). Primary lowland dipterocarp forest at Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia: Structure, relative abundance and family composition. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond.B. 335: 341–356.Google Scholar
  26. Nicholson, D. I. (1965). A study of virgin forest near Sandakan, North Borneo. In UNESCO (ed.), Proceedings of the Symposium on Ecological Research in Humid Tropics Vegetation, Kucing, Sarawak, Malaysia, pp. 67–86.Google Scholar
  27. Payne, J. (1988). Orangutan conservation in Sabah. In World Wildlife Fund-Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.Google Scholar
  28. Payne, J. (1989). Atourism feasability study for the proposed Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary. In WWF-Malaysia Int. Rep., Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.Google Scholar
  29. Phillips, O. L. (1997). The changing ecology of tropical forests. Biodiv. Cons.6:291–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Plumptre, A. J., and Reynolds, V. (1997). Nesting behavior of chimpanzees: Implications for censuses. Int. J. Primatol. 18(4): 475–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Proctor, J., Anderson, J. M., Chai, P., and Wallack, H. W. (1983). Ecological studies in four contrasting lowland rainforests in Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak. I. Forest envi-ronment, structure and floristics. J. Ecol. 71: 237–260.Google Scholar
  32. Rao, M., and van Schaik, C. P. (1997). The behavioral ecology of Sumateran orangutans in logged and unlogged forest. Trop. Biodiv. 4(2): 173–185.Google Scholar
  33. Rijksen, H. D. (1978). A field study on Sumatran orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abeliiLesson, 1827): Ecology, behaviour and conservation, H. Veenman and Zonen, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  34. Rijksen, H. D., and Meijaard, E. (1999). Our Vanishing Relative, Tropenbos Foundation, Kluwer Academic, Norwell, MA, 480 pp.Google Scholar
  35. Russon, A. E., Erman, A., and Dennis, R. (2001). The population and distribution of orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) in and around the Danau Sentarum Wildlife Reserve, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biol. Cons. 97: 21–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Singleton, I. (2000). Ranging Behaviour and Seasonal Movements of Sumatran Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii) in Swamp Forests, PhD Thesis, University of Kent at Canterbury, UK.Google Scholar
  37. Sooryanarayama, S. (1995). Floods in Malaysia: Patterns and implications. Mal. J. Trop. Geo. 26(1): 35–46.Google Scholar
  38. Sugardjito, J. (1983). Selecting nest-sites of Sumatran orang-utans, Pongo pygmaeus abeliiin the Gunung Leuser National park, Indonesia. Primates 24(4): 467–474.Google Scholar
  39. Tutin, C. E. G., and Fernandez, M. (1984). Nationwide census of gorilla (Gorilla. g. gorilla) and chimpanzee (Pan t. troglodytes) populations in Gabon. Am. J. Primatol.6:313–336.Google Scholar
  40. Tutin, C. E. G., Parnell, R. J., White, L. T. J., and Fernandez, M. (1995). Nest building by lowland gorillas in the Lope Reserve, Gabon: Environmental influences and implications for censusing. Int. J. Primatol. 16(1): 53–76.Google Scholar
  41. van Schaik, C. P., Priatna, A., and Priatna, D. (1995). Population estimates and habitat prefer-ences of orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) based on line transects of nests. In Nadler, R. D., Galdikas, B. F. M., Sheeran, L. K., and Rosen, N. (eds.), The Neglected Ape, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 129–147.Google Scholar
  42. Whitmore, T. C. (1974). Tropical Rain Forest of the Far East, Clarendon, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  43. Yamagiwa, J. (2001). Factors influencing the formation of ground nests by eastern lowland go-rillas in Kahuzi-Biega National Park: Some evolutionary implications of nesting behavior. J. Hum. Evol. 40: 99–109.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc Ancrenaz
    • 1
  • Romain Calaque
    • 2
  • Isabelle Lackman-Ancrenaz
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Kinabatangan Orangutan Conservation Project, PO BoxSabahMalaysia
  2. 2.Projet de Protection des GorillesGabonSpain

Personalised recommendations