Higher Education

, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp 253–268 | Cite as

The development and validation of a framework for teaching competencies in higher education

  • Dineke E.H. TigelaarEmail author
  • Diana H.J.M. Dolmans
  • Ineke H.A.P. Wolfhagen
  • Cees P.M. van der Vleuten


In higher education, approaches to teaching are becoming more student-centred, which demands different teaching competencies. Therefore, it is necessary to have an adequate framework of teaching competencies that can be used for evaluation purposes. The weaknesses of the existing frameworks are that they do not pay attention to the person as teacher, they are too narrowly defined, they are not validated and they are not adjusted to modern approaches to teaching.

The aim of this study was to develop and validate a framework of teaching competencies in higher education. A framework for teaching competencies was therefore constructed containing the following domains: The Person as Teacher, Expert on Content Knowledge, Facilitator of Learning Processes, Organiser and Scholar/Lifelong Learner. The framework was validated using a Delphi method. Educational experts (N = 63) were asked: ``How important are the following teaching competencies in each domain for an experienced teacher in higher education?'' A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess the adequacy of the domains.

After two rounds, the shift in ratings was minimal, so the results were considered stable. The response rate was 82%. From the original list with 134 items, 30 items were omitted because many experts failed to respond to them. The experts reached consensus on 61 out of the resulting 104 items (59%). A confirmatory factor analysis on the three best scoring items in each domain confirmed the model. A framework of teaching competencies was developed and validated that can be used as a starting point for teacher evaluation in higher education.

Delphi method student-centred approaches to teaching teaching competencies 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dineke E.H. Tigelaar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Diana H.J.M. Dolmans
    • 1
  • Ineke H.A.P. Wolfhagen
    • 1
  • Cees P.M. van der Vleuten
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Educational Development and ResearchUniversity of MaastrichtMaastrichtThe Netherlands

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