Geotechnical aspects and ground response studies in Bhuj earthquake, India
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The extent of damage and affected areas in Bhuj earthquake (26th January 2001) has provided a unique opportunity to evaluate a wide range of geotechnical issues. A large area in the Rann of Kutch experienced massive liquefaction resulting in ground subsidence and lateral flow. A large number of dams in the Kutch district suffered moderate to severe damages. Many buildings were damaged and collapsed in the city of Ahmedabad situated on the bank of the Sabarmati River. In this paper, the ground response studies at a site in Ahmedabad City along with observations of geotechnical aspects such as ground cracking, sand volcanoes and liquefaction of soils associated with the Bhuj earthquake are discussed. The ground response studies indicate that the varying degree of damage to multistorey buildings in Ahmedabad in the close proximity of Sabarmati river area was essentially due to the collapse and undesirable settlement of partly saturated silty sand deposits. Large settlements are attributed to amplification of the ground and the near resonance condition.
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