Oil content, tocopherol composition and fatty acid patterns of the seeds of 51 Cannabis sativa L. genotypes

Abstract

The oil content, the tocopherol composition, the plastochromanol-8 (P-8) content and the fatty acid composition (19 fatty acids) of the seed of 51 hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) genotypes were studied in the 2000 and 2001 seasons. The oil content of the hemp seed ranged from 26.25% (w/w) to 37.50%. Analysis of variance revealed significant effects of genotype, year and of the interaction (genotype × year) on the oil content. The oil contents of the 51 genotypes in 2000 and 2001 were correlated (r = 0.37**) and averaged 33.19 ± 1.45% in 2000 and 31.21 ± 0.96% in 2001. The γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, P-8- and β-tocopherol contents of the 51 genotypes averaged 21.68 ± 3.19, 1.82 ± 0.49, 1.20 ± 0.40, 0.18 ± 0.07 and 0.16 ± 0.04 mg 100g−1 of seeds, respectively (2000 and 2001 data pooled). Hierarchical clustering of the fatty acid data did not group the hemp genotypes according to their geographic origin. The γ-linolenic acid yield of hemp (3–30 kg ha−1) was similar to the γ-linolenic acid yield of plant species that are currently used as sources of γ-linolenic acid (borage (19–30 kg ha−1), evening primrose (7–30 kg ha−1)). The linoleic acid yield of hemp (129–326 kg ha−1) was similar to flax (102–250 kg ha−1), but less than in sunflower (868–1320 kg ha−1). Significant positive correlations were detected between some fatty acids and some tocopherols. Even though the average content of P-8 in hemp seeds was only 1/120th of the average γ-tocopherol content, P-8 content was more closely correlated with the unsaturated fatty acid content than γ-tocopherol or any other tocopherol fraction. The average broad-sense heritabilities of the oil content, the antioxidants (tocopherols and P-8) and the fatty acids were 0.53, 0.14 and 0.23, respectively. The genotypes Fibrimon 56, P57, Juso 31, GB29, Beniko, P60, FxT, Félina 34, Ramo and GB18 were capable of producing the largest amounts of high quality hemp oil.

References

  1. Adam, L., U. Oberdoerster, M. Sonnenschein, E. Döpelheuer, M. Springer & B. Olschewsky, 2000. Verbundvorhaben: ã-Linolensäure-Anbau, Ernte und Produktentwicklung. UFOP-Schriften Heft 14 Ől-und Faserpflanzen, pp. 233–237.

  2. Balz, M., E. Schulte & H.-P. Thier, 1992. Trennung von Tocopherolen und Tocotrienolen durch HPLC. Fat Sci Tech 94: 209–213.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bócsa, I., 1958. Beiträge zur ZŰchtung eines ungarischen monözischen Hanfes und zur Kenntnis der Inzuchterscheinungen bei Hanf (Cannabis sativa L.). Z PflanzenzŰchtg 39: 11–34.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Bócsa, I., 2001. HanfzŰchtung-Ein ¨ Uberblick, Möglichkeiten der weiteren Optimierung von Fasererträgen durch Hanfhybriden. Proceedings of the 'Innovationsforum Wertschöpfungsketten in der Naturstoffverarbeitung', December 10–11, 2001, Gardelegen, Germany, pp. 83–92.

    Google Scholar 

  5. BrŰhl, L. & B. Matthäus, 1999. Extraction of oilseeds by SFE - a comparison with other methods for the determination of the oil content. Fresenius J Anal Chem 364: 631–634.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Cappelletto, P., M. Brizzi, F. Mongardini, B. Barberi, M. Sannibale, G. Nenci, M. Poli, G. Corsi, G. Grassi & P. Pasini, 2001. Italy-grown hemp: yield, composition and cannabinoid content. Indus-trial Crop Prod 13: 101–113.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Clough, P., 2001. Sources and production of speciality oils contain-ing GLA and stearidonic acid. Lipid Tech 13: 9–12.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Deferne, J.L. & D.W. Pate, 1996. Hempseeds oil: a source of valuable essential fatty acids. J Int Hemp Assoc 3: 1–6.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Diepenbrock, W., G. Fischbeck, K.-U. Heyland & N. Knauer, 1999. Spezieller Pflanzenbau, 3. Auflage, Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Goffman, F.D. & S. Galetti, 2001. Gamma-linolenic acid and toco-pherol contents in the seed oil of 47 accessions from several ribes species. J Agric Food Chem 49: 349–354.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Goffman, F.D. & C. Möllers, 2000. Changes in tocopherol and plastochromanol-8 contents in seeds and oil of oilseed rape (Bras-sica napus L.) during storage as influenced by temperature and air oxygen. J Agric Food Chem 48: 1605–1609.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Griffiths, A.J. F., W.M. Gelbart, J.H. Miller, & R.C. Lewontin, 1999. Modern genetic analysis, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, pp. 586–587.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Heyland, K.-U., 1996. Spezieller Pflanzenbau, 7. Auflage, Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Huhnke, W, C. Jordan, H. Neuer & R. von Sengbusch, 1951. Grundlagen fŰr die Züchtung eines monözischen Hanfes. Z Pflanzenzüchtg 29: 55–75.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Kamal-Eldin, A. & L.-Å Appelqvist, 1996. The chemistry and an-tioxidant properties of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Lipids 31: 671–701.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Kriese, U., E. Schumann, A. Peil, W.E. Weber, E. Grimm, H. Rennebaum, W. Gans, B. Matth¨ aus & L. Br ¨ uhl, 2002. Qualitätsmerkmale in der HanfzŰchtung. In: Proceed-ings XXXVII. Vortragstagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft f Űr Qualitätsforschung (DGQ) e.V. Qualität und PflanzenzŰchtung, March 4–5, 2002, Hannover, Germany, pp. 127–132.

  17. Léger, C.-L., 2000. La vitamine E: état actuel des connaissances, rôle dans la prevention cardiovasculaire, biodisponibilit´ e. Oléagineux Corps gras Lipide 7: 235–265.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Matthäus, B., L. Br¨ uhl, U. Kriese, E. Schumann & A. Peil, 2002. Hanfól: Ein Highlight fŰr die KŰche? Forschungs Report 2/2002.pp. 22–25.

  19. Mólleken, H., 1999. Hanf (Cannabis sativa) als Novel Food. BIO-forum Forschung und Entwicklung, Sonderdruck, GIT Verlag GmbH, Darmstadt.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Olejnik, D., M. Gogolewski & M. Nogala-Kalucka, 1997. Isolation and some properties of plastochromanol-8, Nahrung 41: 101–104.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Oomah, B.D., M. Busson, D.V. Godfey & J.C.G. Drover, 2002. Char-acteristics of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil, Food Chem 76: 33–43.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Riemersma, R.A., 2001. The demise of the n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio? A dossier, Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 103: 372–373.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Schuster, W.H., 1992. lpflanzen in Europa. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Schwarz, K., G. Bertelsen, L.R. Nissen, P.T. Gardner, M.I. Heinonen, A. Hopia, T. Huynh-Ba, P. Lambelet, D. McPhail, L.H. Skibsted, & L. Tijburg, 2001. Investigation of plant extracts for the protection of processed foods against lipid oxidation. Com-parison of antioxidant assays based on radical scavenging, lipid oxidation and analysis of the principal antioxidant compounds, Eur Food Res Technol 212: 319–328..351

    Google Scholar 

  25. Stauffer, C.E., 1996. Fats and Oils. 1st, edn, American Associa-tion of Cereal Chemists, Inc., Eagan Press Handbook Series, St. Paul.

  26. Utz, H.F., 2002. PLABSTAT-Software to analyse plant breed-ing experiments. Institute of Plant Breeding, Seed Science and Population Genetics, University Hohenheim.

  27. von Sengbusch, R., 1952. Ein weiterer Beitrag zur Vererbung des Geschlechts bei Hanf als Grundlage fŰr die ZŰchtung eines mon¨ ozischen Hanfes. Z PflanzenzŰchtg 31: 319–338.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Valk, E.E.J. & G. Hornstra, 2000. Relationship between vitamin E re-quirement and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake in man: a review, Int J Vit Nutr Res 70: 31–42.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Wolfram, G. & N. Zöllner, 1971. Linolsäurebedarf des Men-schen. In: N, Zöllner (Ed.), Wissenschaftliche Ver ¨ offentlichungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fŰr Ernährung Vol. 22 pp. 51–60, Steinkopf-Verlag, Darmstadt.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kriese, U., Schumann, E., Weber, W. et al. Oil content, tocopherol composition and fatty acid patterns of the seeds of 51 Cannabis sativa L. genotypes. Euphytica 137, 339–351 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1023/B:EUPH.0000040473.23941.76

Download citation

  • Cannabis sativa
  • essential fatty acids
  • gamma-linolenic acid
  • hemp oil
  • plastochromanol-8