Public-Health Impact of Outdoor Air Pollution in Russia

Abstract

Based on the well-known approaches to risk assessment, estimates of the number of attributable deaths caused by atmospheric air pollution in the towns of Russia have been obtained. The data of daily monitoring of air pollution in 1993 and 1998 carried out by Rosgidromet (Weather Service of Russia) were used for assessment. The epidemiology-based exposure–response function for a 10 μg/m3 increase in particulate matter PM10 was used to assess the attributable number of cases of deaths in Russia. The EPA approach was applied to derive the risk of carcinogenesis caused by outdoor carcinogens controlled by Rosgidromet. In the present paper, it has been shown that up to 219–233 thousands of premature deaths or 15–17% out of the total annual mortality might be caused by air pollution in Russia. The data are given on a possible contribution of various carcinogens controlled by Rosgidromet at the stations of constant observation to the total mortality caused by atmospheric pollution. On the whole, the number of people that fell ill with cancer as a result of exposure to all the carcinogens present in the atmosphere can be assessed within the range of 2000–4000 humans. This assessment estimates the public-health impacts of air pollution. At the present time, we have no information concerning the degree of universality of the exposure–response function for PM10 and its sensitivity to a change in social-demographic indicators. Nevertheless, the assessments, given in the present work, make it possible to obtain important information concerning the possible scale of health-outcome due to atmospheric pollution for the population of Russia.

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Reshetin, V., Kazazyan, V. Public-Health Impact of Outdoor Air Pollution in Russia. Environmental Modeling & Assessment 9, 43–50 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1023/B:ENMO.0000020889.41526.66

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Keywords

  • Risk Assessment
  • Response Function
  • Total Mortality
  • Premature Death
  • Atmospheric Pollution