Skip to main content
Log in

Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Wheat and Drinking Water Samples from Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Aims and scope Submit manuscript


The organochlorine pesticide contamination in dietary sources has caused serious threat to the human progeny. The present studywas therefore conducted to evaluate the pesticide contaminationin wheat flour and drinking water from Jaipur City, Rajasthan,India using Gas Chromatograph. All the wheat and water sampleswere found to be contaminated with various organochlorinepesticide residues of DDT and its metabolites, HCH and itsisomers, heptachlor and its expoxide and aldrin. The amount ofpesticide detected in wheat flour was higher than the permissible limitsprescribed by WHO/FAO. In drinking water only a few pesticidesexceeded the permissible limits. Seasonal variations ofpesticides residues were also observed during the study period.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Institutional subscriptions


  • Anonymous: 1996, Pesticide Residues in Paddy, Biennial Progress Report 1994–96, AICRP Pesticide Residues, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, 3–6.

  • APHA: 1995, ‘Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater’, 19th ed. Washington DC.

  • Bindra, O. S.: 1973, ‘A Review ofWork Done in India on Pesticides’, in: O. S. Bindra and R. L. Kalra (eds), Progress and Problems in Pesticide Residue Analysis, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana and ICMR, New Delhi, 1–144.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brooks, G. T.: 1972, ‘Pesticides in Britain’, in F. Matsumura, G. M. Bousch and T. Misato (eds), Environmental Toxicology of Pesticides, Academic Press, New York, 61–114.

    Google Scholar 

  • Campbell, J. E., Richardson, L. A. and Schafer, M. L.: 1965, ‘Insecticide residues in human diet’, Arch. Environ. Health. 10, 831–836.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chawla, R. P., Joia, B. S. and Kalra, R. L.: 1979, ‘Assessment of losses of DDT and HCH residues in wheat flour during chapati making’, Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol 22, 833–837.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, S. Z.: 1990, ‘Pesticides in Ground Water: An Overview’, in D. H. Hutson and I. R. Roberts (eds), Environmental Fate of Pesticides, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 13–15.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gupta, S. K., Verghese, S., Chatterjee, S. K. and Kashyap, S. K.: 1982, ‘Organochlorine pesticide residues in cokked meal samples in India’, Pesticides 16, 8–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • ICMR: ‘Manual Methods of Analysis of Adulterants and Contaminants in Food’, G. S. Toteja, A. Mikherjee, R. Mittal and B. N. Saxena (eds), Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, 1990.

    Google Scholar 

  • Joia, B. S., Chawla, R. P. and Kalra, R. L.: 1978, ‘Residues of DDT and HCH in wheat flour in Punjab’, Indian J. Ecol 5, 120–127.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kaphalia, B. S., Siddiqui, F. S. and Seth, T. D.: 1985, ‘Contamination levels in different food items and dietary intake of organochlorine pesticide residues in India’, India J. Med. Res. 81, 71–78.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kathpal, T. S. and Kumari, Beena: 1993, ‘Pesticide Contamination of Non-Fatty Foods in Developing Countries’, in G. S. Dhaliwal and B. Singh (eds), Pesticides: Their Ecological Impact in Developing in Developing Countries, Commonwealth Publishers, New Delhi, 169–171.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kathpal, T. S. and Kumari, Beena: 1998, ‘Pesticide Contamination of Environment: Its Implications and Management’, in G. S. Dhaliwal, N. S. Randhwa, Ramesh Arora and A. K. Dhawan (eds), Ecological Agriculture and Sustainable Development, Chandigarh, India, 537–557.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kraybill, H. F.: 1969, ‘Significance of pesticide residues in foods in relation to total environmental stress’, Can. Mes. Assoc. J. 100, 204.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lakshiminarayana, V. and P. K. Menon: 1975, ‘Screening of Hyderabad market samples of foodstuffs for organochlorine insecticide residues’, Indian J. Plant Protec. 3(1), 4–19.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mukherjee, D., Roy, B. R., Chakraborty, J. and Ghosh, B. N.: 1980, ‘Pesticide residues in human food in Calcutta’, Indian J. Med. Res. 72, 577–582.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nair, M. and Pillai, M. K. K.: 1992, ‘Trends in amient levels of DDT and HCH residues in humans and the environment of Delhi, India’, Sci. total Environ. 121, 145–157.

    Google Scholar 

  • Splidi, N. H. and Koppen, B.: 1998, ‘Results of an Extended Survey of Pesticides in Ground Water’, 15th Danish Plant Protection Conference on Side Effects of Pesticides Weeds, 2, 31–41.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thompson, R. H., Hill, E. G. and Fishwick, F. B.: 1970, ‘Pesticide residues in Britain XIII. Organochlorine residues in cereals, pulses and nuts’, Pestic. Sci. 1, 93–98.

    Google Scholar 

  • WHO: 1973, ‘Pesticide Residues in Food’, Report of the 1972 Joint FAO/WHO Meeting, Wld. Hlth. Org. Tech. Rep. Ser. No. 525, Geneva.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to P. J. John.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Bakore, N., John, P.J. & Bhatnagar, P. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Wheat and Drinking Water Samples from Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Environ Monit Assess 98, 381–389 (2004).

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: