An overview of the conceptual development of future time perspective theory [Nuttin, J. R. (1984). Motivation, Planning and Action: A Relational Theory of Behavior, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ; Nuttin, J., and Lens, W. (1985). Future Time Perspective and Motivation: Theory and Research Method, Leuven University Press and Erlbaum, Leuven, Belgium and Hillsdale, NJ] is provided. It is demonstrated that having a deep future time perspective and increasing the instrumentality of one's present behavior are associated with enhanced motivation, deep conceptual learning, better performance, and more intensive persistence. Moreover, recent research indicates that it is important to consider the degree of specificity of the provided future goal, the content of the given future goal, and the context in which the instrumentality of the present behavior is made clear. Practical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
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Simons, J., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W. et al. Placing Motivation and Future Time Perspective Theory in a Temporal Perspective. Educational Psychology Review 16, 121–139 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1023/B:EDPR.0000026609.94841.2f
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