Skip to main content

Out-migration of Tagged Fishes from Marine Reef National Parks to Fisheries in Coastal Kenya

Abstract

We evaluated movements of 25 species of coral reef fishes from Malindi and Watamu Marine National Parks (created 1968) in coastal Kenya from February 2001 to March 2002. Only three species, the commercially important whitespotted rabbitfish, Siganus sutor, the sky emperor (SEM), Lethrinus mahsena and the trumpet emperor, L. miniatus, exhibited consistent movements from the parks. At Malindi Park, more fishes were recaptured by fishermen off a fringing reef than off a patch reef. The rabbitfish had a higher monthly spillover rate from the fringing reef than from the patch reef. In contrast, the SEM had low monthly spillover rates from both reefs. The rabbitfish moved greater distances off the fringing reef than off the patch reef. At Watamu Park, the SEM, L. miniatus and the gold-spotted sweetlips, Gaterin flavomaculatus, had equal monthly spillover rates. In contrast, the rabbitfish had a lower monthly rate. The emperors showed no difference in net distance moved from the park boundary, however, L. miniatus traveled significantly longer distances than did the SEM. Distances between release and capture sites were either random (SEM), increasing (L. miniatus), or decreasing (rabbitfish) with respect to time at liberty.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Allen, G. 1997. Marine fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and South-East Asia-a field guide for anglers and divers. Western Australia Museum, Perth, 292

  2. Attwood, C.G. & B.A. Bennet. 1994. Variation in dispersal of Galjoen (Coracinus carpensis) (Teleostei: Coracinidae) from a marine reserve. Can. J. Fish. Aquatic Sci. 51: 1247–1257.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Appeldoorn, R.S. 1997. Dispersal rates of commercially important coral reef fishes: What do tagging studies tell us about potential emigration from marine fisheries reserves. Proceedings of the Gulf Caribbean Institute 49: 54–58.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Bohnsack, J.A. 1998. Application of marine reserves to reef fisheries management. Aust. J. Ecol. 23: 298–304.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Chapman, R.M. & D.L. Kramer. 2000. Movements of fishes within and among fringing coral reefs in Barbados. Environ. Biol. Fish. 57: 11–24.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Corless, M., B.G. Hatcher & S. Scott. 1997. Assessing the potential for fish migration from marine reserves to adjacent fished areas in the Soufriere marine management area, St. Lucia. Proceedings of the Gulf Caribbean Fisheries Institute 49: 71–98.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Holland, K.N., J.D. Peterson., C.G. Lowe & B.M. Wetherbee. 1993. Movements, distribution and growth rates of the white goatfish Mulloides flavolineatusin a fisheries conservation zone. Bull. Marine Sci. 52: 982–992.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Jennings, S. 2001. Patterns and prediction of population recovery in marine reserves. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 10: 209–231.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Kaunda-Arara, B. & M.J. Ntiba. 1997. The reproductive biology of Lutjanus fulviflamma(Pisces: Lutjanidae) from Kenyan inshore marine waters. Hydrobiologia 353: 153–160.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Kramer, D.L. & M.R. Chapman. 1999. Implications of fish home range size and relocation for marine reserve function. Environ. Biol. Fish. 55: 65–79.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Lieske, E. & R. Myers. 1994. Collins Pocket Guide to Coral Reef Fishes: Indo-Pacific and Caribbean, Herper Collins Publishers, London, 400 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  12. McClanahan, T.R. & B. Kaunda-Arara. 1996. Fishery recovery in a coral-reef marine park and its effect on the adjacent fishery. Conservation Biol. 10: 1187–1199.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. McClanahan, T.R. & S. Mangi. 2000. Spillover of exploitable fishes from a marine park and its effect on the adjacent fishery. Ecol. Appl. 10: 1792–1805.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Munro, J.L. 2000. Outmigration and movement of tagged coral reef fish in a marine fishery reserve in Jamaica. Proceedings of the Gulf Caribbean Fisheries Institute 51: 557–568.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Ratikin, A. & D.L. Kramer. 1996. Effect of a marine reserve on the distribution of coral reef fish in Barbados. Marine Ecol. Prog. Ser. 131: 97–113.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Roberts, C.M. & N.V.C. Polunin. 1991. Are reserves effective in management of reef fisheries. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 1: 65–91.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Rowley, R.J. 1994. Marine reserves in fisheries management. Aquatic Conserv. 4: 233–254.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Russ, G.R. & A.C. Alcala. 1996. Effects of intense fishing pressure on an assemblage of coral reef fishes. Marine Ecol. Prog. Ser. 56: 13–27.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Russ, G.R. 1991. Coral reef fisheries: Effects and yields. pp. 601–635. In: P.F. Sale (ed.) The Ecology of Fishes on Coral Reefs, Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Russ, G.R. 2002. Yet another review of marine reserves as reef fishery management tools. pp. 421–443. In: P.F. Sale (ed.) Coral Reef Fishes: Dynamics and Diversity in a Complex Ecosystem, Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Sale, P.F. 1980. The ecology of fishes on coral reefs. Oceanogr. Marine Biol. Rev. 18: 367–421.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Smith, J.L.B. & P.C. Heemstra. 1986. Smith's Sea Fishes, 4th edition, Valiant Publications, Santom, South Africa, 578 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Warner, R.R. 1995. Large mating aggregations and daily long-distance spawning aggregations in the bluehead wrasse, Thalassoma bifasciatum. Environ. Biol. Fish. 44: 337–345.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Wiens, J.A., C.S. Crowford & J.R. Gosz. 1985. Boundary dynamics: A conceptual framework for studying landscape ecosysytems. Oikos 45: 421–427.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Zeller, D.C. & G.R. Russ. 2000. Population estimates and size structure of Plectropomus leopardus(Pisces: Serranidae) in relation to no-fishing zones: Mark-release-resighting and under water visual census. Marine Freshwater Res. 51: 221–228.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kaunda-Arara, B., Rose, G.A. Out-migration of Tagged Fishes from Marine Reef National Parks to Fisheries in Coastal Kenya. Environmental Biology of Fishes 70, 363–372 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1023/B:EBFI.0000035428.59802.af

Download citation

  • coral reef fishes
  • marine reserves
  • spillover rates
  • movement patterns
  • tag loss
  • patch and fringing reefs