Advertisement

Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 85–103 | Cite as

Reciprocal Relations Between Depressive Symptoms and Self-Criticism (but Not Dependency) Among Early Adolescent Girls (but Not Boys)

  • Golan ShaharEmail author
  • Sidney J. Blatt
  • David C. Zuroff
  • Gabriel P. Kuperminc
  • Bonnie J. Leadbeater
Article

Abstract

Recent criticism of theories of personality vulnerability to depression posits that personality may be an outcome, rather than a cause, of depressive symptoms. In this study, we address this criticism, focusing on the personality dimensions of dependency and self-criticism (S. J. Blatt & D. C. Zuroff, 1992). Dependency, self-criticism, and depressive symptoms were assessed twice over a 1-year interval in a large sample of early adolescent girls and boys. A vulnerability model, in which dependency and self-criticism influence depressive symptoms, was contrasted with a “scar” model, in which depressive symptoms influence dependency and self-criticism, and with a reciprocal causality model, in which both constructs influence each other over time. Cross-lagged analyses using structural equation modeling supported a reciprocal causality model involving self-criticism (but not dependency) among girls (but not boys). Results suggest that in early adolescence, girls' self-criticism and depressive symptoms contribute to a vicious phenomenological cycle.

personality depression vulnerability scar cross-lagged-design 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Arbuckle J. L. (1999). AMOS: A structural equation modeling software. Chicago, IL: Small Waters CC0.Google Scholar
  2. Aub'e, J., & Whiffen V. E. (1996). Depressive styles and social acuity: Further further evidence for distinct interpersonal correlates of dependency and self-criticism. Communication Research, 23, 407–424.Google Scholar
  3. Bartelstone J. H., & Trull T. J. (1995). Personality, life events and depression. Journal of Personality Assessment, 64, 279–294.Google Scholar
  4. Beck A. T. (1967). Depression: Causes and treatment. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  5. Beck A. T. (1983). Cognitive therapy for depression: New perspectives. In P. J. Clayton & J. E. Barett (Eds.), Treatment of depression: Old controversies and new approaches (pp. 265–290). New York: Raven.Google Scholar
  6. Beck A. T., Carlson G. A., Russell A. T., & Brownfield F. E. (1987). The use of depression rating instruments in developmentally and educationally delayed adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Journal0, 26, 97–100.Google Scholar
  7. Beck A. T., Steer R. A., & Garbin M. G. (1988). Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clinical Psychology Review, 8, 77–100.Google Scholar
  8. Bentler P. M., & Bonett D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 588–606.Google Scholar
  9. Bentler P. M., & Mooijaart A. (1989). Choice of structural equation models via parsimony: A rational based on precision. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 315–317.Google Scholar
  10. Blatt S. J. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclitic and introjective depression. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 29, 107–157.Google Scholar
  11. Blatt S. J. (1995). The destructiveness of perfectionism: Implications for the treatment of depression. American Psychologist, 50, 1003–1020.Google Scholar
  12. Blatt S. J., D'Afflitti J. P., & Quinlan D. M. (1976). Experiences of depression in normal young adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 383–389.Google Scholar
  13. Blatt S. J., Hart B., Quinlan D. M., Leadbeater B., & Auerbach J. (1993). Interpersonal and self-critical dysphoria and behavioral problems in adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 22, 253–269.Google Scholar
  14. Blatt S. J., Schaffer C. E., Bers S. A., & Quinlan D. M. (1992). Psychometric properties of the Adolescent Depressive Experiences Questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 59, 82–98.Google Scholar
  15. Blatt S. J., Shahar G., & Zuroff D. C. (2001). The anaclitic (sociotropic) and introjective (autonomous) dimensions. Psychotherapy, 38, 449–454.Google Scholar
  16. Blatt S. J., Zohar A., Quinlan D. M., Luthar S. S., & Hart B. (1996). Levels of relatedness within the dependency factor of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire for Adolescents. Journal of Personality Assessment, 67, 52–71.Google Scholar
  17. Blatt S. J., Zohar A. H., Quinlan D. M., Zuroff D. C., & Mongrain M. (1995). Subscales within the dependency factor of The Depressive Experiences Questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 64, 319–339.Google Scholar
  18. Blatt S. J., & Zuroff D. C. (1992). Interpersonal relatedness and self-definition: Two prototypes for depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 12, 527–562.Google Scholar
  19. Bornstein R. F. (1995). The dependent personality. New-York: Guilford, Press.Google Scholar
  20. Bornstein R. F. (1998). Depathologizing dependency. Journal of Nervous and_Mental Disease, 186, 67–73.Google Scholar
  21. Brown G. W., & Harris T. (1978). Social origins of depression: A study of psychiatric disorders in women. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  22. Chaplin W. F. (1991). The next generation of moderator research in personality psychology. Journal of Personality, 59, 143–178.Google Scholar
  23. Compas B. E., Davis G. E., Forsythe C. J., & Wagner B. (1987). Assessment of major and daily stressful events during adolescence: The Adolescent Perceived Event Scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 534–541.Google Scholar
  24. Compas B. E., Ey S., & Grant K. E. (1994). Taxonomy, assessment, and diagnosis of depression during adolescence. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 323–344.Google Scholar
  25. Coyne J. C. (1976a). Toward an interpersonal description of depression. Psychiatry, 39, 28–40.Google Scholar
  26. Coyne J. C. (1976b). Depression and the response of others. Journal of Abnormal_Psychology, 85, 186–193.Google Scholar
  27. Coyne J. C. (1994). Self-report distress. Analog or ersatz depression? Psychological Bulletin, 116, 29–45.Google Scholar
  28. Coyne J. C., & Calarco M. (1995). The experience of depression: Results from focus groups. Psychiatry, 58, 149–163.Google Scholar
  29. Coyne J. C., Gallo S. M., Klinkman M. S., & Calarco M. M. (1998). Effects of recent and past major depression and distress on self-concept and coping. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 86–96.Google Scholar
  30. Coyne J. C., & Gotlib I. H. (1983). The role of cognition in depression: A critical appraisal. Psychological Bulletin, 94, 472–505.Google Scholar
  31. Coyne J. C., & Gotlib I. (1986). Studying the role of cognition in depression: Well-trodden paths and cul-de-sacs. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 10, 695–705.Google Scholar
  32. Coyne J. C., & Whiffen V. E. (1995). Issues in personality as diathesis for depression: The case of sociotropy-dependency and autonomy-self-criticism. Psychological Bulletin, 118, 358–378.Google Scholar
  33. Davila J., Burge D., & Hammen C. (1997). Why does attachment style change? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 826–838.Google Scholar
  34. Dunkley D. M., & Blankstein K. R. (2000). Self-critical perfectionism, coping, hassles, and current distress: A structural equation modeling approach. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 24, 713–730.Google Scholar
  35. Dunkley D. M., Blankstein K. R., Halsall J., Williams M., & Winkworth G. (2000). The relation between perfectionism and distress: Hassles, coping, and perceived social support as mediators and moderators. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47, 437–453.Google Scholar
  36. Fichman L., Koestner R., & Zuroff D. C. (1994). Depressive styles in adolescence: Assessment, relation to social functioning and developmental trends. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 23, 315–330.Google Scholar
  37. Flett G. L., Hewitt P. L., Endler N. S., & Bagby R. M. (1995). Conceptualization and assessment of personality factors in depression. European Journal of Personality, 9, 309–350.Google Scholar
  38. Gotlib I. H., Lewinsohn P. M., & Seeley J. R. (1995). Symptoms versus a diagnosis of depression: Differences in psychosocial functioning. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 90–100.Google Scholar
  39. Haines M. E., Norris M. P., & Kashy D. A. (1996). The effects of depressed mood on academic performance in college students. Journal of College Student Development, 37, 519–526.Google Scholar
  40. Hammen C. (1991). The generation of stress in the course of unipolar depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 555–561.Google Scholar
  41. Hammen C., Marks T., Mayol A., & DeMayo R. (1985). Depressive self-schemes, life stress, and vulnerability to depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98, 154–160.Google Scholar
  42. Hays R. D., Marshall G. N., Wang E. Y. I., & Sherbourne C. D. (1994). Four years cross-lagged associations between physical and mental health in a medical outcome study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 441–449.Google Scholar
  43. Henrich C., Blatt S. J., Zohar A., Kuperminc G. P., & Leadbeater B. J. (2000). Levels of interpersonal concerns and social functioning in early adolescent boys and girls. Journal of Personality Assessment, 76, 48–67.Google Scholar
  44. Hoyle R. H., & Smith G. T. (1994). Formulating research questions as structural equation models: A conceptual overview. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 429–440.Google Scholar
  45. Imber S. D., Pilkonis P. A., Sotsky S. M., Elkin I., Watkins J. T., Collins J., et al. (1990). Mode-specific effects among three treatments for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 352–359.Google Scholar
  46. Joiner T. E. (1994). Contagious depression: Existence, specificity to depressive symptoms, and the role of reassurance seeking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 287–296.Google Scholar
  47. Joiner T. E. (2000). Depression's vicious scree: Self-propagating and erosive processes in depression chronicity. Clinical Psychology Science and Practice, 7, 203–218.Google Scholar
  48. Joiner T. E., Coyne J. C., & Blalock J. (1998). On the interpersonal nature of depression: Overview and synthesis. In T. E. Joiner & J. C. Coyne (Eds.), The interpersonal nature of depression (pp. 3–19). Washington DC: American Psychological AW0.Google Scholar
  49. Joiner T. E., Jr., Gencoz F., Gencoz T., Metalsky G. I., & Rudd M. D. (2001). The relation of self-hatred and sucidality in people with schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 23, 107–115.Google Scholar
  50. Kaltiala-Heino R., Rimpelae M., & Rantanen P. (1998). School performance and self-reported depressive symptoms in middle adolescence. Psychiatria Fennica, 29, 40–49.Google Scholar
  51. Klein M. H., Wonderlich S., & Shea M. T. (1997). Models of relationships between personality and depression: Toward a framework for theory and research. In M. J. Klein, D. J. Kupfer, & M. T. Shea (Eds.), Personality and depression: A current view. New-York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  52. Leadbeater B. J., Kuperminc G. P., Blatt S. J., & Hertzog C. (1999). A multivariate mode of gender differences in adolescent's internalizing and externalizing problems. Developmental Psychology, 35, 1268–1282.Google Scholar
  53. Lewinson P. M., Solomon A., Seeley J. R., & Zeiss A. (2000). Clinical implications of “subthreshold” depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 345–351.Google Scholar
  54. Luthar S. S., & Blatt S. J. (1995). Differential vulnerability of dependency and self-criticism among disadvantaged teenagers. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 5, 431–449.Google Scholar
  55. Marmor G. S., & Montemayor R. (1977). The cross-lagged panel design: A review. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 45, 883–893.Google Scholar
  56. Mongrain M. (1998). Parental representations and support-seeking behavior related to dependency and self-criticism. Journal of Personality, 66, 151–173.Google Scholar
  57. Mongrain M., Vettese L. C., Shuster B., & Kendal N. (1998). Perceptual biases, affect, and behavior in the relationships of dependents and self-critics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 230–241.Google Scholar
  58. Mongrain M., & Zuroff D. C. (1994). Ambivalence over emotional expression and negative life events: Mediators of depressive symptoms in dependent and self-critical individuals. Personality and Individual Differences, 16, 447–458.Google Scholar
  59. Monroe S. M., & Simons A. D. (1991). Diathesis-stress theories in the context of life stress research: Implication for the depressive disorders. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 406–425.Google Scholar
  60. Nolen-Hoeksema S. (1990). Sex differences in depression. Stanford, CA: Stanford University PS0.Google Scholar
  61. Persons J. B., & Miranda J. (1992). Cognitive theories of vulnerability to depression: Reconciling negative evidence. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 16, 485–502.Google Scholar
  62. Priel B., & Shahar G. (2000). Dependency, self-criticism, social context and distress: Comparing moderating and mediating models. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 515–525.Google Scholar
  63. Robins C. J. (1995). Personality-event interaction models of depression. European Journal of Personality, 9, 367–378.Google Scholar
  64. Rhode P., Lewinsohn P. M., & Seeley J. R. (1990). Are people changed by the experience of having an episode of depression? A further test of the “scar” hypothesis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 264–271.Google Scholar
  65. Rude S. S., & Burnham B. L. (1993). Do interpersonal and achievement vulnerabilities interact with congruent events to predict depression? Comparison of the DEQ, SAS, DAS, and combined scales. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 17, 531–548.Google Scholar
  66. Rude S. S., & Burnham B. L. (1995). Connectedness and neediness: Factors of The DEQ and SAS dependency scales. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 19, 323–340.Google Scholar
  67. Salmela-Aro K., & Nurmi J. (1996). Depressive symptoms and personal project appraisals: A cross-lagged longitudinal study. Personality and Individual Differences, 21, 373–381.Google Scholar
  68. Salovey P. (1992). Mood-induced self-focused attention. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 699–707.Google Scholar
  69. Santor D. A., Bagby R. M., & Joffe R. T. (1997). Evaluating stability and change in personality and depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73Google Scholar
  70. Segal Z. V., & Ingram R. E. (1994). Mood priming and construct activation in tests of cognitive vulnerability to unipolar depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 14, 663–695.Google Scholar
  71. Segal Z. V., & Shaw B. F. (1986a). Cognition in depression: A reappraisal of Coyne and Gotlib's critique. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 10, 671–693.Google Scholar
  72. Segal Z. V., & Shaw B. F. (1986b). When cul-de-sacs are more mentality than reality: A rejoinder to Coyne and Gotlib. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 10, 707–714.Google Scholar
  73. Shahar G. (2001). Personality, shame, and the breakdown of social bonds: The voice of quantitative depression research. Psychiatry, 64, 228–239.Google Scholar
  74. Shahar G., & Priel B. (2003). Active vulnerability, adolescent distress, and the mediating/suppressing role of life events. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 199–218.Google Scholar
  75. Steiger J. H. (1980). Test for comparing elements of a correlation matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 87, 245–251.Google Scholar
  76. Teasdale J. D. (1983). Negative thinking in depression: Cause, affect, or reciprocal relation? Advances in Behavior Research and Therapy, 5, 3–25.Google Scholar
  77. Vincenzi H. (1987). Depression and reading ability in sixth-grade children. Journal of School Psychology, 25, 155–160.Google Scholar
  78. Zuroff D. C. (1992). New directions for cognitive models of depression. Psychological Inquiry, 3, 274–277.Google Scholar
  79. Zuroff D. C., Blatt S. J., Sanislow C. A., III, Bondi C. M., & Pilkonis P. A. (1999). Vulnerability to depression: Reexamining state dependence and relative stability. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 76–89.Google Scholar
  80. Zuroff D. C., Blatt S. J., Sotsky S. M., Krupnick J. L., Martin D. J., Sanislow C. A., et al. (2000). Relation of therapeutic alliance and perfectionism to outcome in brief outpatient treatment of depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 114–124.Google Scholar
  81. Zuroff D. C., & Duncan N. (1999). Self-criticism and conflict resolution in romantic couples. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 31, 137–149.Google Scholar
  82. Zuroff D. C., Igreja I., & Mongrain M. (1990). Dysfunctional attitudes, dependency, and self-criticism as predictors of depressive mood states: A 12–month longitudinal study. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 315–326.Google Scholar
  83. Zuroff D. C., & Mongrain M., (1987). Dependency and self-criticism: Vulnerability factors for depressive affective states. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 96, 14–22.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Golan Shahar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sidney J. Blatt
    • 1
  • David C. Zuroff
    • 2
  • Gabriel P. Kuperminc
    • 3
  • Bonnie J. Leadbeater
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and PsychologyYale UniversityNew Haven
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyGeorgia State UniversityAtlanta
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversity of VictoriaBritish ColumbiaCanada

Personalised recommendations