What Are the Costs of Marital Conflict and Dissolution to Children's Physical Health?

Article

Abstract

Do parental marital conflict and dissolution influence the risk trajectory of children's physical health risk? This paper reviews evidence addressing this question in the context of understanding how early environmental adversities may trigger a succession of risks that lead to poor health in childhood and greater risk for chronic health problems in adulthood. We first review existing evidence linking marital conflict and dissolution to offspring's physical health outcomes. Next, we provide evidence supporting biopsychosocial pathways that may link marital conflict and dissolution with accelerated health risk trajectories across the lifespan. Specifically, we posit that consequential to the stresses associated with marital conflict and disruption, parenting practices are compromised, leading to offspring deficits in affective, behavioral, and cognitive domains. These deficits, in turn, are hypothesized to increase health risk through poor health behaviors and by altering physiological stress-response systems, including neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and neurotransmitter functioning. On the basis of the available direct evidence and theoretically plausible pathways, it appears that there is a cost of marital conflict and disruption to children's health; however, more comprehensive investigations are needed to further elucidate this relationship. In the final section, we address limitations in the current literature and identify research that is needed to better evaluate the association between marital conflict and dissolution and children's physical health.

marital conflict divorce children's health 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Aagaard, J., Husfeldt, P., & Husfeldt, V. (1983). Social factors and life events as predictors for children's health. A one-year prospective study. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, 72(2), 275-281.Google Scholar
  2. Adler, N. E., Boyce, T., Chesney, M. A., Cohen, S., Folkman, S., Kahn, R. L., & Syme, S. L. (1994). Socioeconomic status and health: The challenge of the gradient. American Psychologist, 49, 15-24.Google Scholar
  3. Ainsworth, M. D. S., Bell, S. M., & Stayton, D. J. (1991). Infant–mother attachment and social development: “Socialisation” as a product of reciprocal responsiveness to signals. In M. Woodhead, R. Carr, & P. Light (Eds.), Becoming a person. Child development in social context (Vol. 1, pp. 30-55). Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis/Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Allen, M. T., Matthews, K. A., & Sherman, F. S. (1997). Cardiovascular reactivity to stress and left ventricular mass in youth. Hypertension, 30(4), 782-787.Google Scholar
  5. Amato, P. R. (2001). Children of divorce in the 1990s: An update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis. Journal of Family Psychology, 15(3), 355-370.Google Scholar
  6. Amato, P. R., & Booth, A. (1996). A prospective study of divorce and parent–child relationships. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 58(2), 356-365.Google Scholar
  7. Amato, P. R., & Booth, A. (2001). The legacy of parents' marital discord: Consequences for children's marital quality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(4), 627-638.Google Scholar
  8. Amato, P. R., & Keith, B. (1991a). Parental divorce and the well-being of children: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 110(1), 26-46.Google Scholar
  9. Amato, P. R., & Keith, B. (1991b). Parental divorce and adult well-being: A meta-analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53(1), 43-58.Google Scholar
  10. Amato, P. R., Loomis, L. S., & Booth, A. (1995). Parental divorce, marital conflict, and offspring well-being during early adulthood. Social Forces, 73(3), 895-915.Google Scholar
  11. Anderson, R. N. (2002). Deaths: Leading causes for 2000. National Vital Statistics Reports, 50(16), 1-85.Google Scholar
  12. Aro, H. (1988). Parental discord, divorce, and adolescent development. European Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 237(2), 106-111.Google Scholar
  13. Aro, H., & Palosaari, U. K. (1992). Parental divorce, adolescence, and transition to young adulthood: A follow-up study. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 62, 421-429.Google Scholar
  14. Ary, D. V., Duncan, T. E., Duncan, S. C., & Hops, H. (1999). Adolescent problem behavior: The influence of parents and peers. Behavior Research and Therapy, 37, 217-230.Google Scholar
  15. Bagwell, C. L., Newcomb, A. F., & Bukowski, W. M. (1998). Preadolescent friendship and peer rejeciton as predictors of adult adjustment. Child Development, 69, 140-153.Google Scholar
  16. Ballard, M., Cummings, E. M., & Larkin, K. (1993). Emotional and cardiovascular responses to adults' angry behavior and to challenging tasks in children of hypertensive and normotensive parents. Child Development, 64, 500-515.Google Scholar
  17. Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  18. Barefoot, J. C., Dodge, K. A., Peterson, B. L., Dahlstrom, W. G., & Williams, R. B. (1989). The Cook–Medley Hostility Scale: Item content and ability to predict survival. Psychosomatic Medicine, 51, 46-57.Google Scholar
  19. Barefoot, J. C., Larsen, S., von der Lieth, L., & Schroll, M. (1995). Hostility, incidence of acute myocardial infarction, and mortality in a sample of older Danish men and women. American Journal of Epidemiology, 142, 477-484.Google Scholar
  20. Baron, R. M., & Kenney, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.Google Scholar
  21. Benotsch, E. G., Christensen, A. J., & McKelvey, L. (1997). Hostility, social support, and ambulatory cardiovascular activity. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 20, 163-176.Google Scholar
  22. Berman, M. E., & Coccaro, E. F. (1998). Neurobiologic correlates of violence: Relevance to criminal responsibility. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 16, 303-318.Google Scholar
  23. Berman, M. E., Tracy, J. I., & Coccaro, E. F. (1997). The serotonin hypothesis of aggression revisited. Clinical Psychology Review, 17(6), 651-665.Google Scholar
  24. Bianchi, S. M., Subaiya, L., & Kahn, J. (1997). Economic well-being of husbands and wives after marital disruption. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  25. Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Atachment. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  26. Boyce, W. T., Chesney, M., Alkon, A., Tschann, J. M., Adams, S., Chesterman, B., et al. (1995). Psychobiologic reactivity to stress and childhood respiratory illnesses: Results of two prospective studies. Psychosomatic Medicine, 57(5), 411-422.Google Scholar
  27. Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 371-399.Google Scholar
  28. Brook, J. S., Whiteman, M., Cohen, P., & Tanaka, J. S. (1992). Childhood precursors of adolescent drug use: A longitudinal analysis. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 118, 195-213.Google Scholar
  29. Brook, J. S., Whiteman, M., Finch, S., & Cohen, P. (1995). Aggression, intrapsychic distress, and drug use: Antecedent and intervening processes. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 1076-1084.Google Scholar
  30. Brummett, B. H., Barefoot, J. C., Siegler, I. C., Clapp-Channing, N. E., Lytle, B. L., Bosworth, H. B., et al. (2001). Characteristics of socially isolated patients with coronary artery disease who are at elevated risk for mortality. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 267-272.Google Scholar
  31. Buehler, C., & Gerard, J. M. (2002). Marital conflict, ineffective parenting, and children's and adolescents' maladjustment. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 64(1), 78-92.Google Scholar
  32. Calkins, S. D. (1994). Origins and outcomes of individual differences in emotion regulation. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(2–3), 250-283.Google Scholar
  33. Campos, J. J., Campos, R. G., & Barrett, K. C. (1989). Emergent themes in the study of emotional development and emotion regulation. Developmental Psychology, 25(3), 394-402.Google Scholar
  34. Castro-Martin, T., & Bumpass, L. (1989). Recent trends in marital disruption. Demography, 26, 37-51.Google Scholar
  35. Champoux, M., Byrne, E., DeLizio, R. D., & Suomi, S. J. (1992). Motherless mothers revisited: Rhesus maternal behavior and rearing history. Primates, 33, 436-441.Google Scholar
  36. Chase-Lansdale, P. L., Cherlin, A. J., & Kiernan, K. E. (1995). The long-term effects of parental divorce on the mental health of young adults: A developmental perspective. Child Development, 66, 1614-1634.Google Scholar
  37. Chen, E., & Matthews, K. A. (2001). Cognitive appraisal biases: An approach to understanding the relationship between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular reactivity in children. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 23, 101-111.Google Scholar
  38. Chen, E., Matthews, K. A., & Boyce, W. T. (2002). Socioeconomic differences in children's health: How and why do these relationships change with age? Psychological Bulletin, 128(2), 295-329.Google Scholar
  39. Clark, D. B., & Neighbors, B. (1996). Adolescent substance abuse and internalizing disorders. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 5(1), 45-57.Google Scholar
  40. Coccaro, E. F., Silverman, J., Klar, H., Horvath, T., & Siever, L. (1994). Familial correlates of reduced central serotonergic system function in patients with personality disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 318-324.Google Scholar
  41. Cohen, S., Tyrrell, D. A., & Smith, A. (1997). Psychological stresses in humans and susceptibility to the common cold. In T. W. Miller (Ed.), Clinical disorders and stressful life events (pp. 217-235). Madison, CT: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  42. Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74-101.Google Scholar
  43. Crick, N. R., Grotpeter, J. K., & Bigbee, M. A. (2002). Relationally and physically aggressive children's intent attributions and feelings of distress for relational and instrumental peer provocations. Child Development, 73(4), 1134-1142.Google Scholar
  44. Crockenberg, S., & Langrock, A. (2001). The role of specific emotions in children's responses to interparental conflict: A test of the model. Journal of Family Psychology, 15(2), 163-182.Google Scholar
  45. Cummings, E. M. (1998). Children exposed to marital conflict and violence: Conceptual and theoretical directions. In G. W. Holden, R. Geffner, & E. N. Jouriles (Eds.), Children exposed to marital violence: Theory, research, and applied issues. APA science volumes (pp. 55-93). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  46. Cummings, E. M., & Davies, P. (1994). Children and marital conflict: The impact of family dispute and resolution. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  47. Cummings, E. M., & Davies, P. T. (1994). The impact of parents on their children: An emotional security perspective. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Annals of child development: A research annual (pp. 167-208). Jessica Kinysley Publishers: London & Bristol, PA.Google Scholar
  48. Cummings, E. M., Davies, P. T., & Campbell, S. M. (2000). Developmental psychopathology and family process. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  49. Cummings, E. M., Davies, P. T., & Simpson, K. S. (1994). Marital conflict, gender, and children's appraisals and coping efficacy as mediators of child adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology, 8, 141-149.Google Scholar
  50. Cummings, E. M., & El-Sheikh, M. (1991). Children's coping with angry environments: A process-oriented approach. In E. M. Cummings, A. L. Greene, & K. H. Karraker, (Eds.), Life-span developmental psychology: Perspectives on stress and coping (pp. 131-150). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  51. Cummings, E. M., Iannotti, R. J., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (1985). Influence of conflict between adults on the emotions and aggression of young children. Developmental Psychology, 21(3), 495-507.Google Scholar
  52. Cummings, E. M., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (1992). Emotions and the socialization of aggression: Adults' angry behavior and children's arousal and aggression. In A. Fraczek & H. Zumkley (Eds.), Socialization and aggression (pp. 61-84). New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  53. Cummings, J. S., Pellegrini, D., Notarius, C., & Cummings, E. M. (1989). Children's responses to angry adult behavior as a function of marital distress and history of interparent hostility. Child Development, 52, 1035-1043.Google Scholar
  54. Cummings, P. T., & Davies, M. (2002). Effects of marital conflict on children: Recent advances and emerging themes in process-oriented research. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 31-63.Google Scholar
  55. David, C., Steele, R., Forehand, R., & Armistead, L. (1996). The role of family conflict and marital conflict in adolescent functioning. Journal of Family Violence, 11, 81-91.Google Scholar
  56. Davies, P. T., & Cummings, E. M. (1994). Marital conflict and child adjustment: An emotional security hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 387-411.Google Scholar
  57. Davies, P. T., Myers, R. L., Cummings, E. M., & Heindel, S. (1999). Adult conflict history and children's subsequent responses to conflict: An experimental test. Journal of Family Psychology, 13(4), 610-628.Google Scholar
  58. Davis, M. C., Matthews, K. A., & McGrath, C. E. (2000). Hostile attitudes predict elevated vascular resistance during interpersonal stress in men and women. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62, 17-25.Google Scholar
  59. Dawson, D. A. (1991). Family structure and children's health and well-being: Data from the 1988 National Health Interview Survey on Child Health. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53, 573-584.Google Scholar
  60. de Goede, M., & Spruijt, E. (1996). Effects of parental divorce and youth unemployment on adolescent health. Patient Education and Counseling, 29, 269-276.Google Scholar
  61. Demo, D. H., & Cox, M. J. (2000). Families with young children: A review of research in the 1990s. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 876-895.Google Scholar
  62. Dodge, K. A. (1980). Social cognition and children's aggressive behavior. Child Development, 51, 162-170.Google Scholar
  63. Dodge, K. A., & Crick, N. R. (1990). Social information-processing bases of aggressive behavior in children. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 16(1), 8-22.Google Scholar
  64. Donchin, Y., Constantini, S., Szold, A., Byrne, A. A., & Porges, S. W. (1992). Cardiac vagal tone predicts outcome in neurosurgical patients. Critical Care Medicine, 20, 942-949.Google Scholar
  65. Doussard-Roosevelt, J. A., & Porges, S. W. (1999). The role of neurobehavioral organization in stress responses: A polyvagal model. In M. Lewis & D. Ramsey (Eds.), Soothing and stress (pp. 57-76). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  66. Duncan, G. J. (1996). Income dynamics and health. International Journal of Health Services, 26, 419-444.Google Scholar
  67. Duszynski, K. R., Shaffer, J. W., & Thomas, C. B. (1981). Neoplasm and traumatic events in childhood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 327-331.Google Scholar
  68. Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Shepard, S. A., Murphy, B. C., Guthrie, I. K., Jones, S., et al. (1997). Contemporaneous and longitudinal prediction of children's social functioning from regulation and emotionality. Child Development, 68(4), 642-664.Google Scholar
  69. El-Sheikh, M. (1994). Children's emotional and physiological responses to interadult angry behavior: The role of history of interparental hostility. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 22(6), 661-678.Google Scholar
  70. El-Sheikh, M., & Harger, J. (2001). Appraisals of marital conflict and children's adjustment, health, and physiological reactivity. Developmental Psychology, 37(6), 875-885.Google Scholar
  71. El-Sheikh, M., Harger, J., & Whitson, S. M. (2001). Exposure to interparental conflict and children's adjustment and physical health: The moderating role of vagal tone. Child Development, 72(6), 1617-1636.Google Scholar
  72. Emery, R. E. (1988). Marriage, divorce, and children's adjustment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  73. Everson, S. A., George, K. A., Goldberg, D. E., Lakka, T. A., Sivenius, J., & Salonen, J. T. (1999). Anger expression and incident stroke: Prospective evidence from the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Study. Stroke, 30, 523-528.Google Scholar
  74. Fagot-Campagna, A. (2000). Emergence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children: Epidemiological evidence. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, 13(Suppl. 6), 1395-1402.Google Scholar
  75. Feldman, S. S., Fisher, L., & Seitel, L. (1997). The effect of parents' marital satisfaction on young adults' adaptation: A longitudinal study. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 7(1), 55-80.Google Scholar
  76. Fincham, F. D., Grych, J. H., & Osborne, L. N. (1994). Does marital conflict cause child maladjustment? Directions and challenges for longitudinal research. Journal of Family Psychology, 8, 128-140.Google Scholar
  77. Fisher, P. A., Gunnar, M. R., Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. B. (2000). Preventive intervention for maltreated preschool children: Impact on children's behavior, neuroendocrine activity, and foster parent functioning. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(11), 1356-1364.Google Scholar
  78. Fletcher, A. C., & Jefferies, B. C. (1999). Parental mediators of associations between perceived authoritative parenting and early adolescent substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19, 465-487.Google Scholar
  79. Flinn, M. V., & England, B. G. (1997). Social economics of childhood glucocorticoid stress response and health. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 102(1), 33-53.Google Scholar
  80. Flory, J. D., Matthews, K. A., & Owens, J. F. (1998). A social information processing approach to dispositional hostility: Relationships with mood and blood pressure elevations at work. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 17, 491-504.Google Scholar
  81. Fox, N. (1989). Psychophysiological correlates of emotional security during the first year of life. Developmental Psychology, 25, 364-372.Google Scholar
  82. Frost, A. K., & Pakiz, B. (1990). The effects of marital disruption on adolescents: Time as a dynamic. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 60, 544-555.Google Scholar
  83. Gallo, L. C., & Matthews, K. A. (2003). Understanding the association between socioeconomic status and health: Do negative emotions play a role? Psychological Bulletin, 129, 10-51.Google Scholar
  84. Gallo, L. C., & Smith, T. W. (1999). Patterns of hostility and social support: Conceptualizing psychosocial risk factors as characteristics of the person and the environment. Journal of Research in Personality, 33, 281-310.Google Scholar
  85. Gottman, J. M., & Katz, L. F. (1989). Effects of marital discord on young children's peer interaction and health. Developmental Psychology, 25(3), 373-381.Google Scholar
  86. Gottman, J. M., Katz, L. F., & Hooven, C. (1996). Parental meta-emotion philosophy and the emotional life of families: Theoretical models and preliminary data. Journal of Family Psychology, 10(3), 243-268.Google Scholar
  87. Grych, J. H., & Fincham, F. D. (1990). Marital conflict and child's adjustment: A cognitive-contextual framework. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 267-290.Google Scholar
  88. Guidubaldi, J., & Cleminshaw, H. K. (1985). Divorce, family health, and child adjustment. Journal of Applied Family and Child Studies, 34(1), 35-41.Google Scholar
  89. Gunnar, M. R. (1998). Quality of early care and buffering of neuroendocrine stress reactions: Potential effects on the developing human brain. Preventive Medicine, 27(2), 208-211.Google Scholar
  90. Gunnar, M. R., & Donzella, B. (2002). Social regulation of the cortisol levels in early human development. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 27(1–2), 199-220.Google Scholar
  91. Gunnar, M. R., Gonzalez, C. A., Goodlin, B. L., & Levine, S. (1981). Behavioral and pituitary–adrenal responses during a prolonged separation period in infant rhesus macaques. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 6(1), 65-75.Google Scholar
  92. Guyll, M., & Contrada, R. J. (1998). Trait hostility and ambulatory cardiovascular activity: Responses to social interaction. Health Psychology, 17, 30-39.Google Scholar
  93. Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Miller, J. Y. (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 64-105.Google Scholar
  94. Hawkins, J. D., Graham, J. W., Maguin, E., Abbott, R., Hill, K. G., & Catalano, R. F. (1997). Exploring the effects of age of alcohol use initiation and psychosocial risk factors on subsequent alcohol misuse. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 58, 280-290.Google Scholar
  95. Hawkins, J. D., Lishner, D. M., Catalano, R. F., & Howard, M. O. (1985). Childhood predictors of adolescent substance abuse: Toward an empirically grounded theory. Journal of Children in a Contemporary Society, 18(1–2), 11-48.Google Scholar
  96. Heaton, T. B., & Jacobson, C. K. (1994). Race differences in changing family demographics in the late 1980s. Journal of Family Issues, 15, 290-308.Google Scholar
  97. Heim, C., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2001). The role of childhood trauma in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders: Preclinical and clinical studies. Biological Psychiatry, 49(12), 1023-1039.Google Scholar
  98. Herbert, T. B., & Cohen, S. (1993). Depression and immunity: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 472-486.Google Scholar
  99. Hetherington, E. M. (1989). Coping with family transitions: Winners, losers, and survivors. Child Development, 60, 1-14.Google Scholar
  100. Hetherington, E. M. (1991). Families, lies, and videotapes. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 1, 323-348.Google Scholar
  101. Hetherington, E. M., & Stanley-Hagan, M. (1999). The adjustment of children with divorced parents: A risk and resiliency perspective. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 129-140.Google Scholar
  102. Hetherington, E. M. (1993). An overview of the Virginia longitudinal study of divorce and remarriage with a focus on early adolescence. Journal of Family Psychology, 7, 39-56.Google Scholar
  103. Hetherington, E. M., Bridges, M., & Insabella, G. M. (1998). What matters? What does not? Five perspectives on the association between marital transitions and children's adjustment. American Psychologist, 53, 167-184.Google Scholar
  104. Hetherington, E. M., Cox, M., & Cox, R. (1985). Long-term effects of divorce and remarriage on the adjustment of children. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24, 518-530.Google Scholar
  105. Higginbotham, J. C., Baranowski, T., Puhl, J., & Greaves, K. A. (1991). Ethnicity, gender, and Type A differences in resting heart rate and blood pressure among young children. Ethnicity and Disease, 1, 123-134.Google Scholar
  106. Higley, J. D., & Bennett, A. J. (1999). Central nervous system serotonin and personality as variables contributing to excessive alcohol consumption in nonhuman primates. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 34, 402-418.Google Scholar
  107. Higley, J. D., Suomi, S. J., & Linnoila, M. (1992). A longitudinal assessment of CSF monoamine metabolite and plasma cortisol concentrations in young rhesus monkeys. Biological Psychiatry, 32(2), 127-145.Google Scholar
  108. Higley, J. D., Suomi, S. J., & Linnoila, M. (1996). A nonhuman primate model of type II excessive alcohol consumption? Part 1. Low cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations and diminished social competence correlate with excessive alcohol consumption. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 20(4), 629-642.Google Scholar
  109. House, J. S., Landis, K. R., & Umberson, D. (1988). Social relationships and health. Science, 241, 540-545.Google Scholar
  110. Howes, P., & Markman, H. (1989). Marital quality and child functioning: A longitudinal investigation. Child Development, 60, 1044-1051.Google Scholar
  111. Idler, E. L., & Benyamini, Y. (1997). Self-rated health and mortality: A review of twenty-seven community studies. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 32, 221-237.Google Scholar
  112. Jackson, C., Henriksen, L., & Dickinson, D. (1999). Alcohol-specific socialization, parenting behaviors and alcohol use by children. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 60, 362-367.Google Scholar
  113. Jacobson, K. C., & Crockett, L. J. (2000). Parental monitoring and adolescent adjustment: An ecological perspective. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 10, 65-97.Google Scholar
  114. Jenkins, J. (2000). Marital conflict and children's emotions: The development of an anger organization. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62(3), 723-736.Google Scholar
  115. Jenkins, C. D., Krager, B. E., Rose, R. M., & Hurst, M. W. (1980). Use of a monthly health review to ascertain illness and injuries. American Journal of Public Health, 70, 82-84.Google Scholar
  116. Jessor, R. (1984). Adolescent development and behavioral health. In J. D. Matarazzo, & S. M. Weiss, J. A. Herd, & N. E. Miller, & S. M. Weiss (Eds.), Behavioral health: A handbook of health enhancement and disease prevention (pp. 69-90). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  117. Johnson, E. O., Kamilaris, T. C., Calogero, A. E., Gold, P. W., & Chrousos, G. P. (1996). Effects of early parenting on growth and development in a small primate. Pediatric Research, 39(6), 999-1005.Google Scholar
  118. Jouriles, E. N., & LeCompte, S. H. (1991). Husbands' aggression towards wives and mothers' and fathers' aggression toward children: Moderating effects of child gender. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 190-192.Google Scholar
  119. Katz, L. F., & Gottman, J. M. (1995). Vagal tone protects children from marital conflict. Development and Psychopathology, 7(1), 83-92.Google Scholar
  120. Katz, L. F., & Gottman, J. M. (1997). Buffering children from marital conflict and dissolution. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 26(2), 157-171.Google Scholar
  121. Kawachi, I., Sparrow, D., Vokonas, P. S., & Weiss, S. T. (1994). Symptoms of anxiety and risk of coronary heart disease: The normative aging study. Circulation, 90, 2225-2229.Google Scholar
  122. Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Cacioppo, J. T., Malarkey, W. B., & Glaser, R. (1992). Acute psychological stressors and short-term immune changes: What, why, for whom, and to what extent? Psychosomatic Medicine, 54, 680-685.Google Scholar
  123. Knutson, J. F., Schartz, H. A., & Zaidi, L. Y. (1991). Victim risk factors in the physical abuse of children. In R. E. Baenninger (Ed.), Targets of violence and aggression. Advances in psychology (Vol. 76, pp. 103-157). Amsterdam: North-Holland.Google Scholar
  124. Krantz, D. S., & Manuck, S. B. (1984). Acute psychophysiologic reactivity and risk of cardiovascular disease: A review and methodologic critique. Psychological Bulletin, 96(3), 435-464.Google Scholar
  125. Krantz, D. S., & McCeney, M. K. (2002). Effects of psychological and social factors on organic disease: A critical assessment of research on coronary heart disease. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 341-369.Google Scholar
  126. Krishnakumar, A., & Buehler, C. (2000). Interparental conflict and parenting behaviors: A meta-analytic review. Family Relations: Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies, 49, 25-44.Google Scholar
  127. Kubzansky, L. D., Kawachi, I., Weiss, S. T., & Sparrow, D. (1998). Anxiety and coronary heart disease: A synthesis of epidemiological, psychological, and experimental evidence. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 20, 47-58.Google Scholar
  128. Kumanyika, S. K., & Golden, P. M. (1991). Cross-sectional differences in health status in US racial/ethnic minority groups: Potential influence of temporal changes, disease, and life-style transitions. Ethnicity and Disease, 1(1), 50-59.Google Scholar
  129. Lau, R. R., Quadrel, M. J., & Hartman, K. A. (1990). Development and change of young adults' preventive health beliefs and behavior: Influence from parents and peers. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 31, 240-259.Google Scholar
  130. LeMarquand, D., Pihl, R. O., & Benkelfat, C. (1994). Serotonin and alcohol intake, abuse, and dependence: Clinical evidence. Biological Psychiatry, 36, 326-337.Google Scholar
  131. Lissau, I., & Sorensen, T. I. (1994). Parental neglect during childhood and increased risk of obesity in young adulthood. Lancet, 343, 324-327.Google Scholar
  132. Long, N., & Forehand, R. (1987). The effects of parental divorce and parental conflict on children: An overview. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 8(5), 292-296.Google Scholar
  133. Luecken, L. J. (1998). Childhood attachment and loss experiences affect adult cardiovascular and cortisol function. Psychosomatic Medicine, 60(6), 765-772.Google Scholar
  134. Lundberg, O. (1993). The impact of childhood living conditions on illness and mortality in adulthood. Social Science and Medicine, 36, 1047-1052.Google Scholar
  135. Lynch, J. W., Kaplan, G. A., & Shema, S. J. (1997). Cumulative impact of sustained economic hardship on physical, cognitive, psychological, and social functioning. New England Journal of Medicine, 337, 1889-1895.Google Scholar
  136. Lynch, J. W., Smith, G. D., Kaplan, G. A., & House, J. S. (2000). Income inequality and mortality: Importance to health of individual income, psychosocial environment, or material conditions. BMJ, 320, 1200-1204.Google Scholar
  137. Maier, E. H., & Lachman, M. E. (2000). Consequences of early parental loss and separation for health and well-being in midlife. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 24, 183-189.Google Scholar
  138. Mannino, D. M., Homa, D. M., Akinbami, L. J., Moorman, J. E., Gwynn, C., & Redd, S. C. (2002). Surveillance for asthma—United States, 1980—1999. USA: Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, USA.Google Scholar
  139. Manuck, S. B., Flory, J. D., McCaffery, J. M., Matthews, K. A., Mann, J. J., & Muldoon, M. F. (1998). Aggression, impulsivity, and central nervous system serotonergic responsivity in a nonpatient sample. Neuropsychopharmacology, 19, 287-299.Google Scholar
  140. Matthews, K. A., Kiefe, C. I., Lewis, C. E., Liu, K., Sidney, S., & Yunis, C. (2002). Socioeconomic trajectories and incident hypertension in a biracial cohort of young adults. Hypertension, 39, 772-776.Google Scholar
  141. Mauldon, J. (1990). The effect of marital disruption on children's health. Demography, 27(3), 431-446.Google Scholar
  142. McEwen, B. S. (2001). From molecules to mind. Stress, individual differences, and the social environment. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 935, 42-49.Google Scholar
  143. McLanahan, S. S. (1999). Father absence and the welfare of children. In E. M. Hetherington (Ed)., Coping with divorce, single parenting, and remarriage: A risk and resiliency perspective. (pp. 117-145). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  144. McLanahan, S., & Sandefur, G. (1994). Growing up with a single parent: What hurts, what helps? Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  145. McLeod, J. D. (1991). Childhood parental loss and adult depression. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 32, 205-220.Google Scholar
  146. McLoyd, V. C., Harper, C. I., & Copeland, N. L. (2001). Ethnic minority status, interparental conflict, and child adjustment. In J. H. Grych & F. D. Fincham, (Eds.), Interparental conflict and child development: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 98-125). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  147. Mechanic, D. (1980). The experience and reporting of common physical complaints. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 21, 146-155.Google Scholar
  148. Mechanic, D., & Hansell, S. (1989). Divorce, family conflict, and adolescents' well-being. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 30, 105-116.Google Scholar
  149. Metzler, C. W., Noell, J., Biglan, A., Ary, D., & Smolkowski, K. (1994). The social context for risky sexual behavior among adolescents. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 17, 419-438.Google Scholar
  150. Miller, D. B., & O'Callaghan, J. P. (2002). Neuroendocrine aspects of the response to stress. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, 51(6, Suppl. 1), 5-10.Google Scholar
  151. Neumark-Sztainer, D., Story, M., Hannan, P. J., & Croll, J. (2002). Overweight status and eating patterns among adolescents: Where do youths stand in comparison with the healthy people 2010 objectives? American Journal of Public Health, 92(5), 844-851.Google Scholar
  152. O'Connor, T. G., Caspi, A., DeFries, J. C., & Plomin, R. (2000). Are associations between parental divorce and children's adjustment genetically mediated? An adoption study. Developmental Psychology, 36(4), 429-437.Google Scholar
  153. O'Connor, T. G., Davies, L., Dunn, J., & Golding, J. (2000). Distribution of accidents, injuries, and illnesses by family type. ALSPAC Study Team. Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and childhood. Pediatrics, 106(5), 1-6.Google Scholar
  154. Orts, K., Sheridan, J. F., Robinson-Whelen, S., Glaser, R., Malarkey, W. B., & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (1995). The reliability and validity of a structured interview for the assessment of infectious illness. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 18, 517-530.Google Scholar
  155. Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1987). Peer relations and later personal adjustment: Are low-accepted children at risk? Psychological Bulletin, 102, 335-389.Google Scholar
  156. Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive family process. Eugene, OR: Castalia Press.Google Scholar
  157. Peters, E. (1988). Retrospective versus panel data in analyzing life-cycle events. Journal of Human Resources, 23, 439-513.Google Scholar
  158. Pine, D. S., Wasserman, G. A., Coplan, J., Fried, J. A., Huang, Y. Y., Kassir, S., et al. (1996). Platelet serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor characteristics and parenting factors for boys at risk for delinquency: A preliminary report. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153(4), 538-544.Google Scholar
  159. Plomin, R., & Crabbe, J. (2000). DNA. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 806-828.Google Scholar
  160. Porges, S. W. (1992). Vagal tone: A physiologic marker of stress vulnerability. Pediatrics, 90, 498-504.Google Scholar
  161. Porges, S. W., Doussard-Roosevelt, J. A., Portales, A. L., & Greenspan, S. I. (1996). Infant regulation of the vagal “brake” predicts child behavior problems: A psychobiological model of social behavior. Developmental Psychobiology, 29, 697-712.Google Scholar
  162. Porter, B., & O'Leary, K. D. (1980). Marital discord and childhood behavior problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 8, 287-295.Google Scholar
  163. Power, C., Manor, O., & Matthews, S. (1999). The duration and timing of exposure: Effects of socioeconomic environment on adult health. American Journal of Public Health, 89, 1059-1065.Google Scholar
  164. Räikkönen, K., Keltikangas-Jarvinen, L., Adlercreutz, H., & Hautanen, A. (1996). Psychosocial stress and the insulin resistance syndrome. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, 45, 1533-1538.Google Scholar
  165. Repetti, R. L., Taylor, S. E., Seeman, T. E. (2002). Risky families: Family social environments and the mental and physical health of offspring. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 330-366.Google Scholar
  166. Romelsjo, A., Kaplan, G. A., Cohen, R. D., Allebeck, P., & Andreasson, S. (1992). Protective factors and social risk factors for hospitalization and mortality amoung young men. American Journal of Epidemiology, 135(6), 649-658.Google Scholar
  167. Ross, C. E., & Duff, R. S. (1982). Medical care, living conditions, and children's well-being. Social Forces, 61, 456-474.Google Scholar
  168. Rossow, I., & Rise, J. (1994). Concordance of parental and adolescent health behaviors. Social Science and Medicine, 38, 1299-1305.Google Scholar
  169. Rozanski, A., Blumenthal, J. A., & Kaplan, J. (1999). Impact of psychological factors on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and implications for therapy. Circulation, 99, 2192-2217.Google Scholar
  170. Russek, L. G., & Schwartz, G. E. (1997). Feelings of parental caring predict health status in midlife: A 35-year follow-up of the Harvard Mastery of Stress Study. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 20(1), 1-13.Google Scholar
  171. Rutter, M. (1987). Continuities and discontinuities from infancy. In J. Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of infant development (2nd ed., pp. 1256-1296). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  172. Rutter, M. (1991). Protective factors: Independent or interactive? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30(1), 151-152.Google Scholar
  173. Schwartz, J. E., Friedman, H. S., Tucker, J. S., Tomlinson-Keasey, C., Wingard, D. L., & Criqui, M. H. (1995). Sociodemographic and psychosocial factors in childhood as predictors of adult mortality. American Journal of Public Health, 85, 1237-1245.Google Scholar
  174. Shaffer, J. W., Duszynski, K. R., & Thomas, C. B., (1982). Family attitudes in youth as a possible precursor of cancer among physicians: A search for explanatory mechanisms. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 5, 143-163.Google Scholar
  175. Shaw, D. S., Winslow, E. B., & Flanagan, C. (1999). A prospective study of the effects of marital status and family relations on young children's adjustment among African American and European American families. Child Development, 70(3), 742-755.Google Scholar
  176. Smith, T. W. (1995). Assessment and modification of coronary-prone behavior: A transactional view of the person in social context. In A. J. Goreczny (Ed.), Handbook of health and rehabilitation psychology. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  177. Snyder, J. R. (1998). Marital conflict and child adjustment: What about gender? Developmental Review, 18, 390-420.Google Scholar
  178. Spoont, M. R. (1992). Modulatory role of serotonin in neural information processing: Implications for human psychopathology. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 330-350.Google Scholar
  179. Spruijt, E., & de Goede, M. (1997). Transitions in family structure and adolescent well-being. Adolescence, 32, 897-911.Google Scholar
  180. Steinberg, M. S., & Dodge, K. A. (1983). Attributional bias in aggressive adolescent boys and girls. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 1(4), 312-321.Google Scholar
  181. Stocker, C. M., & Youngblade, L. (1999). Marital conflict and parental hostility: Links with children's sibling and peer relationships. Journal of Family Psychology, 13(4), 598-609.Google Scholar
  182. Stott, D. H. (1973). Follow-up study from birth of the effects of prenatal stresses. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 15, 770-787.Google Scholar
  183. Sweeting, H., & West, P. (1995). Family life and health in adolescence: A role for culture in the health inequalities debate? Social Science and Medicine, 40, 163-175.Google Scholar
  184. Taylor, J., Carlson, S. R., Iacono, W. G., Lykken, D. T., & McGue, M. (1999). Individual differences in electrodermal responsivity to predictable aversive stimuli and substance abuse. Psychophysiology, 36, 193-198.Google Scholar
  185. Taylor, S. E., Repetti, R. L., & Seeman, T. (1997). What is an unhealthy environment and how does it get under the skin? Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 411-447.Google Scholar
  186. Thompson, R. A. (1994). Emotion regulation: A theme in search of definition. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 250-283.Google Scholar
  187. Torres, A., Evans, W. D., Pathak, S., & Vancil, C. (2001). Family structure influences cardiovascular reactivity in college students. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 34(3–4), 161-177.Google Scholar
  188. Tucker, J. S., Friedman, H. S., Schwartz, J. E., Criqui, M. H., Tomlinson-Keasey, C., Wingard, D. L., (1997). Parental divorce: Effects on individual behavior and longevity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 381-391.Google Scholar
  189. Vitaliano, P. P., Scanlan, J. M., Krenz, C., & Fujimoto, W. (1996). Insulin and glucose: Relationships with hassles, anger, and hostility in nondiabetic older adults. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58, 489-499.Google Scholar
  190. Wallerstein, J. S., & Kelly, J. B. (1980). Surviving the breakup: How children and parents cope with divorce. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  191. Watson, D., & Pennebaker, J. W. (1989). Health complaints, stress, and distress: Exploring the central role of negative affectivity. Psychological Review, 96, 234-254.Google Scholar
  192. Werner, E. E. (1989, April). Children of the garden island. Scientific American, pp. 106-111.Google Scholar
  193. Wickrama, K. A. S., Lorenz, F. O., & Conger, R. D. (1997). Parental support and adolescent physical health status: A latent growth-curve analysis. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 38(2), 149-163.Google Scholar
  194. Wills, T. A., & Shiffman, S. (1985). Coping and substance use: A conceptual framework. In S. Shiffman & T. A. Wills (Eds.), Coping and substance use (pp. 3-24). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  195. Wuslin, L. R., Valliant, G. E., & Wells, V. E. (1999). A systematic review of the mortality of depression. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61, 6-17.Google Scholar
  196. Zill, N., Morrison, D. R., & Coiro, M. J. (1993). Long-term effects of parental divorce on parent–child relationships, adjustment, and achievement in young adulthood. Journal of Family Psychology, 7, 91-103.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of PittsburghPittsburgh
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of PittsburghPittsburgh

Personalised recommendations