Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 15, Issue 8, pp 797–803 | Cite as

Cigarette Smoking Among Lesbians, Gays, and Bisexuals: How Serious a Problem? (United States)

  • Hao Tang
  • Greg L. Greenwood
  • David W. Cowling
  • Jon C. Lloyd
  • April G. Roeseler
  • Dileep G. Bal


Introduction: Population-based health surveys seldom assess sexual orientation, which results in the absence of a reliable measure of smoking among lesbians, gays, and bisexuals (LGB), a population perceived to have higher risks of tobacco-related diseases. This is the first study to compare the cigarette smoking rate of LGB with that of heterosexual individuals using a population-based sample with both male and female adults, and to identify which sub segments of LGB population are particularly burdened by tobacco use.

Methods: California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), a population-based telephone survey was used to assess smoking prevalence and its correlates among respondents. Of 44,606 respondents, 343 self-identified as lesbian; 593 self-identified as gay; and 793 identified themselves as bisexual (511 female and 282 male). Statistical analysis was performed using SAS and SUDAAN.

Results: Lesbians' smoking rate (25.3%), was about 70% higher than that of hetrosexual women (14.9%) Gay men had a smoking prevelance of 33.2%, comparing to heterosexual men (21.3%). After controlling for demographic variables, logistic regression analysis showed that lesbians and bisexual women were significantly more likely to smoke compared with heterosexual women (OR = 1.95 and OR = 2.08, respectively). Gay men were also significantly more likely to smoke than heterosexual men (OR = 2.13; 95% CI = 1.66-2.73). Being 35-44-years-old, non-Hispanic White, and having low-education attainment and low-household income were common demographic predictors of cigarette smoking among LGB.

Conclusion: Our study provides the strongest evidence to date that lesbians, bisexual females, and gay men had significantly higher cigarette smoking prevalence rates than their heterosexual counterparts.

smoking cessation surveillance homosexuality 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hao Tang
    • 1
  • Greg L. Greenwood
    • 2
  • David W. Cowling
    • 3
  • Jon C. Lloyd
    • 3
  • April G. Roeseler
    • 3
  • Dileep G. Bal
    • 3
  1. 1.Research Scientist, California Department of Health ServicesTobacco Control SectionSacramentoUSA
  2. 2.Center for AIDS Prevention StudiesUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.California Department of Health ServicesTobacco Control SectionSacramentoUSA

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