BT Technology Journal

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 211–226 | Cite as

ConceptNet — A Practical Commonsense Reasoning Tool-Kit

  • H Liu
  • P Singh


ConceptNet is a freely available commonsense knowledge base and natural-language-processing tool-kit which supports many practical textual-reasoning tasks over real-world documents including topic-gisting, analogy-making, and other context oriented inferences. The knowledge base is a semantic network presently consisting of over 1.6 million assertions of commonsense knowledge encompassing the spatial, physical, social, temporal, and psychological aspects of everyday life. ConceptNet is generated automatically from the 700 000 sentences of the Open Mind Common Sense Project — a World Wide Web based collaboration with over 14 000 authors.


Information System Communication Network User Interface Knowledge Base Everyday Life 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Liu H and Singh P: 'Commonsense reasoning in and over natural language', Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems (KES-2004) (2004).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Minsky M: 'The society of mind', Simon & Schuster (1987).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dreifus C: 'Got stuck for a moment: an interview with Marvin Minsky', International Herald Tribune (August 1998).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fellbaum C (Ed): 'WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database', MIT Press (1998).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lenat D B: 'CYC: A large-scale investment in knowledge infrastructure', Communications of the ACM, 38, No 11, pp 33—38 (1995).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Singh P, Lin T, Mueller E T, Lim G, Perkins T and Zhu W L: 'Open mind commonsense: knowledge acquisition from the general public', Proceedings of the First International Conference on Ontologies, Databases, and Applications of Semantics for Large Scale Information Systems, Lecture Notes in Computer Science No 2519 Heidelberg, Springer (2002).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Turner E: 'OMCSNet-WNLG Project', (2003) — Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gelernter D: 'The Muse in the Machine: Computerising the Poetry of Human Thought', Free Press (1994).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Collins A and Loftus E: 'A spreading-activation theory of semantic processing', Psychological Review, 82, No 6, pp 407—428 (1975).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu H and Lieberman H: 'Robust photo retrieval using world semantics', Proceedings of LREC2002 Workshop: Using Semantics for IR, Canary Islands, pp 15—20 (2002).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lieberman H, Faaborg A, Espinosa J and Stocky T: 'Commonsense on the go', BT Technol J, 22, No 4, pp 241—252 (October 2004).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Eagle N, Singh P and Pentland A: 'Common sense conversations: understanding casual conversation using a common sense database', Proceedings of the Artificial Intelligence, Information Access, and Mobile Computing Workshop (IJCAI 2003) (2003).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Commonsense reasoning for interactive applications projects (2003) — Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liu H: 'MontyLingua v1.3.1', Toolkit and API (2003) — http:// Scholar
  15. 15.
    Baker C F, Fillmore C J and Lowe J B: 'The Berkeley FrameNet project', in Proceedings of the COLING-ACL, Montreal, Canada (1998).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Musa R, Scheidegger M, Kulas A and Anguilet Y: 'GloBuddy, a dynamic broad context phrase book', in Proceedings of CONTEXT'2003, pp 467—474, Springer (2003).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Leake D B: 'Case-based reasoning: experiences, lessons, and future directions', Menlo Park, California, AAAI Press (1996).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gentner D: 'Structure-mapping: A theoretical framework for analogy', Cognitive Science, 7, pp 155—170 (1983).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chalmers D J, French R M and Hofstadter D R: 'High-level perception, representation, and analogy: a critique of artificial intelligence methodology', Technical Report CRCC-TR-49, Center for Research in Concepts and Cognition, Indiana University (March 1991).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hofstadter D R and Mitchell M: 'The copycat project: A model of mental fluidity and analogy-making', in Hofstadter D and the Fluid Analogies Research group: 'Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies', Basic Books, Chapter 5, pp 205—267 (1995).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liu H and Singh P: 'MAKEBELIEVE: using commonsense to generate stories', Proceedings of the Eighteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, AAAI Press, pp 957—958 (2002).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang A: 'Turn-taking in a collaborative storytelling agent', Masters Thesis, MIT Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (2002).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hovy E H and Lin C H: 'Automated text summarisation in SUMMARIST', Proceedings of the ACL97/EACL97 Workshop on Intelligent Scalable Text Summarisation, Madrid, Spain (July 1997).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liu H, Lieberman H and Selker T: 'A model of textual affect sensing using real-world knowledge', in Proceedings of IUI 2003, Miami, Florida (2003).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lieberman H, Liu H, Singh P and Barry B: 'Beating some common sense into interactive applications', AI Magazine (to appear in Fall 2004 issue).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Liu H, Lieberman H and Selker T: 'GOOSE: a goal-oriented search engine with commonsense', in Bra D and Conejo B (Eds): 'Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-based Systems', Second International Conference (AH'2002), Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science No 2347, Springer, pp 253—263 (2002).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Liu H: 'Unpacking meaning from words: A context-centered approach to computational lexicon design', in Blackburn et al (Eds): 'Modeling and Using Context', 4th International and Interdisciplinary Conference (CONTEXT 2003) Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science No 2680, Springer, pp 218—232 (2003).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Singh P and Williams W: 'LifeNet: a propositional model of ordinary human activity', Proceedings of the Workshop on Distributed and Collaborative Knowledge Capture (DC-KCAP) at KCAP 2003, Sanibel Island, Florida (2003).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Liu H and Maes P: 'What Would They Think? A computational model of attitudes', Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI 2004), Madeira, Funchal, Portugal, ACM2004, pp 38—45 (January 2004).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stocky T, Faaborg A and Lieberman H: 'A Commonsense approach to predictive text entry', Proceedings of Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI'04), Vienna, Austria (2004).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kumar A, Sundararajan S and Lieberman H: 'Commonsense investing: bridging the gap between expert and novice', Proceedings of Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 04), Vienna, Austria (2004).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Liu H and Lieberman H: 'Toward a programmatic semantics of natural language', Proceedings of VL/HCC'04: the 20th IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing, pp 26—29, Rome, IEEE Computer Society Press (2004).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lieberman H and Liu H: 'Feasibility studies for programming in natural language', in Lieberman H, Paterno F and Wulf V (Eds): 'Perspectives in End-User Development', Kluwer (Summer 2004).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • H Liu
  • P Singh

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations