Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 33, Issue 1, pp 19–30 | Cite as

The Psychological and Interpersonal Relationship Scales: Assessing Psychological and Relationship Outcomes Associated with Erectile Dysfunction and Its Treatment

  • Ralph W. Swindle
  • Ann E. Cameron
  • Daniel C. Lockhart
  • Raymond C. Rosen


Erectile dysfunction (ED) is associated with complex psychological and interpersonal issues. A new measure of treatment outcome, the Psychological and Interpersonal Relationship Scales (PAIRS), was developed to evaluate the broader psychological and interpersonal outcomes associated with erectile dysfunction and its treatment. Initial items were generated based on literature review, focus groups and market research, interviews with patients and partners, and consultation with expert clinicians. Domains of Sexual Self-Confidence, Spontaneity, and Time Concerns were identified and subsequently confirmed by factor analysis. A series of validation studies was performed with four separate samples, including assessment of internal consistency and test-retest reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and treatment responsiveness. Samples for these studies included men recruited from clinical trials for ED in several countries (N =413) and a community sample (N =801). Findings from these studies indicate that PAIRS demonstrates adequate psychometric properties and appears well suited for use in further clinical studies of treatments for ED. It provides a broader assessment of treatment outcome than current measures of erectile function.

erectile dysfunction psychosocial assessment self-esteem sexual confidence treatment outcome 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ralph W. Swindle
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ann E. Cameron
    • 1
  • Daniel C. Lockhart
    • 1
  • Raymond C. Rosen
    • 3
  1. 1.Outcomes ResearchEli Lilly and CompanyIndianapolis
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyIndiana UniversityBloomington
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry and Center for Sexual and Marital Health, Robert Wood Johnson Medical SchoolUniversity of Medicine and Dentistry of New JerseyPiscataway

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