As experience with aquaculture grows worldwide, the concept of sustainable aquaculture is increasingly recognized to incorporate both spatial and temporal dimensions of environmental, economic, and social parameters. Practitioners have discovered that sustainable aquaculture must not only maximize benefits, but also minimize accumulation of detriments, as well as other types of negative impacts on natural and social environment. Therefore, sustainable aquaculture development must be advanced in a manner that is environmentally sustainable and that protects the quality of the environment for other users, while it is equally important for society to protect the quality of the environment for aquaculture. This paper provides a brief review of the worldwide aquaculture development in the last decade, and gives a few examples of sustainable aquaculture activities in the coastal areas that are using natural coastal habitats and ecosystems. Based on already existing national and international efforts to promote sustainable aquaculture, key recommendations are provided, including what should be the next proactive steps.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Binh C.T., Phillips M.J. and Demaine H. 1997. Integrated shrimps–mangrove farming systems in the Mekong delta of Vietnam. Aquacult. Res. 28: 599–610.
Brooks K.M., Mahnken C. and Nash C. 2002. Environmental effects associated with marine netpen waste with emphasis on salmon farming in the Pacific Northwest. In: Stickney R.R. and McVey J.P. (eds) Responsible Marine Aquaculture. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Caddy J.F. and Griffiths R.C. 1995. Living marine resources and their sustainable development. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 353, p. 167.
Chan G.L. 1993. Aquaculture, ecological engineering: lessons from China. Ambio 22(7): 491–494
Chang W.T.B. 1987. Fish culture in China. Fisheries 12(3): 11–15
Chua T.E. 1992. Coastal aquaculture development and the environment: the role of coastal area management. Marine Pollut. Bull. 25(1–4): 98–103.
Cicin-Sain B. (ed) 2000. Development of a policy framework for offshore marine aquaculture in the 3–200 mile US ocean zone. Draft. Center for the Study of Marine Policy, University of Delaware.
Costa-Pierce B.A. 1987. Aquaculture in ancient Hawaii. Bioscience 37(5): 320–331.
Davenport J., Black K., Burnell G., Cross T., Culloty S., Ekaratne S., Furness B., Mulcahy M. and Thetmeyer H. 2003. Aquaculture: The Ecological Issues. British Ecological Society, Blackwell, Oxford.
European Commission (EC) 2002. A strategy for sustainable development of European Aquaculture. COM(2002)511 Final. http://www.europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/com/cnc/2002/com2002_0511en01.pdf.
FAO 1995. Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 41 p.
FAO 1998a. The state ofworld fisheries and aquaculture. http://www.fao.org/docrep/w9900e/w9900e00.htm.
FAO 1998b. Trends in global aquaculture production: 1984–1996. http://www.fao.org/fi/trends/aqtrends/aqtrend.asp.
FAO 1999. Sustainable Aquaculture Development and the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries.
FAO 2000a. The state of world fisheries and aquaculture 2000. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/X8002E/X8002E00.htm.
FAO 2000b. Small ponds make a big difference: integrating fish with crop and livestock farming. http://www/fao.org/docrep/003/x7156e/x7156e00.htm#TopOfPage.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) 2002. The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. http://www.enaca.org/World_Fisheries_Aquaculture_2002.pdf.
Frankic A. 1998. A framework for planning sustainable development in coastal regions: an island pilot project in Croatia. Dissertation. Virginia institute of Marine Science, College of William & Mary. http://www.vims.edu/library/Frankic/Frankic.pdf.
Frankic A. and Hershner C. 2001. Seafood recipes: balancing aquaculture development with coastal planning. In: International workshop on 'Aquaculture and Its Role in Integrated Coastal Zone Management'. European Aquaculture Society, 19–21 April, Oostende, Belgium.
GESAMP 2001. Protecting the oceans from land based activities. Report 71. http://gesamp.imo.org/no71/index.htm.
Goldburg R. and Triplett T. 1997. Murky Waters: Environmental Effects of Aquaculture in the United States. Environmental Defense Fund.
Hawken P., Lovins A. and Lovins L.H. 2000. Natural Capitalism: Creating the Next Industrial Revolution. Back Bay Book.
ICLARM 1997. Better nutrition and livelihood for poor farmers through aquaculture. http://www. iclarm.org/reshigh.htm#better.
ICLARM 1999. Research highlights integrated agriculture–aquaculture. http://www.iclarm.org/reshigh99_4.htm.
IUCN 2000. Coastal and Marine Biodiversity: policy recommendations. Fifth Meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice. Montreal, Canada, 31 January–4 February.
Kapetsky J.M., McGregor L. and Nanne H.E. 1987. A geographical information system and satellite remote sensing to plan for aquaculture development: A FAO-UNEP/GRID cooperative study in Costa Rica. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 287, 51 p.
Lem A. and Shehadeh Z.H. 1997. International trade in aquaculture products.FAO Aquaculture Newsletter 17: 3–6.
MARAQUA 1999. http://www.lifesciences.napier.ac.uk/maraqua/
MARAQUA 2001. http://www.biol.napier.ac.uk/maraqua/.
McVey J.P., Stickney R.R., Yarish C. and Choppin T. 2002. Aquatic polyculture and balanced ecosystem management: new paradigms for seafood production. In: Stickney R.R. and McVey J.P. (eds) Responsible Marine Aquaculture. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
MERAMED 2000. http://www.meramed.com/.
Morikawa T. 1999. Sustainable marine aquaculture and stock enhancement in Japan. NOAA Aquaculture Workshop Report, 11–13 August. http://www.lib.noaa.gov/docaqua/FinalAquacultureWorkshopRpt.pdf.
NACA/FAO 2000. Aquaculture development beyond 2000: the Bangkok Declaration and Strategy. Conference on Aquaculture in the Third Millennium, 20–25 February, Bangkok, Thailand, 27 p.
NAS (National Academy of Science) 1990. Monitoring and Evaluation.
Naylor R.L., Goldburg R.J. and Primavera J.H. 2000. Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Nature 409(29).
NRC 2000. Clean Coastal Waters: Understanding and Reducing the Effects of Nutrient Pollution. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 75 p.
Oregon (CMP) Coastal Management Program 1997. http://www.lcd.state.or.us/coast/ocmpdoc.htm.
PAP/RAC 1996. Approaches for zoning of coastal areas with reference to Mediterranean aquaculture. PAP-10/EAM/GL.1. Split, Croatia.
Pauly D.P., Tyedmers R., Froese and Liu L.Y. 2001. Fishing down and farming up the food web. Conserv. Biol. Practice 2(4): 25.
Power M. and Adams S.M. 1997. Perspectives of the scientific community on the status of ecological risk assessment. Environ. Manage. 21(6): 803–830.
Sorensen J.C. and West N. 1992. A Guide to Impact Assessment in Coastal Environments. USAID and Coastal Resources Center, University of Rhode Island.
Stickney R.R. and McVey J.P. (eds) 2002. Responsible Marine Aquaculture. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Tacon A.G.J. 1997. Contribution to food fish supplies. In: Review of the State of the World Aquaculture. FAO Fisheries Cir. #FIRI/C886 (Rev. 1), pp. 17–21.
Treece G.D. 2002. Shrimp farm effluents. In: Stickney R.R. and McVey J.P. (eds), Responsible Marine Aquaculture. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Watson R. and Pauly D. 2001. Systematic distortions in world fisheries catch trends. Nature 414: 534–536.
WB (World Bank) 1998. Sustainable aquaculture. Rural Development Department. No. 22.
Westwood D. in MARAQUA 2001. http://www.biol.napier.ac.uk/maraqua/.
WWI (World Watch Institute) 1998. Rocking the boat: conserving fisheries and protecting jobs. World Watch Institute, Paper 142, by Anne Platt McGinn.
WWI 1999. Safeguarding the health of oceans. World Watch Institute Paper 145, by Anne Platt McGinn.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Frankic, A., Hershner, C. Sustainable aquaculture: developing the promise of aquaculture. Aquaculture International 11, 517–530 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1023/B:AQUI.0000013264.38692.91
- Ecosystem integrity
- Environmental impacts
- Integrated coastal management
- Socio-economic impacts
- Sustainable aquaculture
- Sustainable development