We investigate the validity of the independence principle for fixed yawed circular cylinders and free yawed circular rigid cylinders subject to vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) at subcritical Reynolds number using direct numerical simulation (DNS). We compare forces on the cylinder and cylinder responses for different angles of yaw and reduced velocities, and investigate the value of the critical angle of yaw. We also present flow visualizations and examine flow structures corresponding to different angles of yaw and reduced velocities.
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Lucor, D., Karniadakis, G.E. Effects of Oblique Inflow in Vortex-Induced Vibrations. Flow, Turbulence and Combustion 71, 375–389 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1023/B:APPL.0000014929.90891.4d