LGBT Identity, Violence, and Social Justice: The Psychological Is Political

Abstract

This article reviews the statistical evidence of LGBT violence in the United States and in the world. In the United States the statistics are from Amnesty International and the New York City Gay and Lesbian Anti-Violence Project. Statistics and other information about LGBT violence in other countries of the world come from many different sources. Reasons why this violence exists and international human rights responses are reviewed. The authors argue for a greater role for mental health organizations in the amelioration of prejudice against LGBT people and for more involvement of these organizations in social justice issues around the world. The article concludes with recommendations for future directions.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. American Psychological Association. (2000). Guidelines for psychotherapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients. American Psychologist, 55(12), 1440-1451.

    Google Scholar 

  2. American Psychological Association. (1999). Answers to Your Questions About Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality: Definition of sexual orientation. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved May 10, 2003, from http://helping.apa.org/daily/answers.html

    Google Scholar 

  3. Amnesty International. (2001). Crimes of hate, conspiracy of silence. Oxford, United Kingdom: The Alden Press.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Berrill, K. T. (1992). Anti-gay violence and victimization in the United States: An overview. In G. M. Herek & K. T. Berrill (Eds.), Hate crimes: Confronting violence in lesbians and gay men (pp. 19-45). Newbury Park, CA.: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Boxer, A. M., & Carrier, J. M. (1998). Evelyn Hooker: A life remembered. Journal of Homosexuality, 36 (1), 1-17.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Committee on Lesbian and Gay Concerns. (1991). Avoiding heterosexual bias in language. American Psychologist, 46 (9), 973-974.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Cong, Z., & Wu, J. (1998). Open debate in China. American Psychological Association Divion 44 Newsletter, 14(1). Retrieved May 10, 2003, from http://www.apa.org/divisions/div44/open.html

  8. D'Augelli, A. R. (1998). Developmental implications of victimization of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. In G. M. Herek (Ed.), Stigma and sexual orientation: Understanding prejudice against lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (pp. 187-210). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  9. De Angelis, T. (2002). Bringing LGB issues to the international stage. APA Monitor on Psychology, 33(2), 51.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Di Placido, J. (1998). Minority stress among lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals: A consequence of heterosexism, homophobia, and stigmatization. In G. M. Herek (Ed.), Stigma and sexual orientation: Understanding prejudice against lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (pp. 138-159). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Drescher, J. (1998). I'm your handyman: A history of reparative therapists. Journal of Homosexuality, 36(1), 19-42.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Fowers, B. J., & Richardson, F. C. (1996). Why is multiculturalism good? American Psychologist, 51(6), 609-621.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Ferreira, E. (2000, January 26). S. Africa-law: S. Africa passes landmark bill to outlaw discrimination. Agence France-Presse Retrieved May 10, 2003, from http://ww2.aegis.org/news/afp/2000/AF000138.html

  14. Gauch, S. (2002, March 1). Egypt cracks down on gays, trumping Islamists. Christian Science Monitor, p. 7.

  15. Glaser, J., Dixit, J., & Green, D. P. (2002). Studying hate crime with the Internet: What makes racists advocate racial violence? Journal of Social Issues, 58(1), 177-193.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Gorman, W. (2001). Refugee survivors of torture: Trauma and treatment. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 32(5), 443-451.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Halprin, L. (1997). The Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Harry, J. (1990). Conceptualizing anti-gay violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5(3), 350-358.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Herek, G. M. & Berrill, K. T. (Eds.) (1992). Hate crimes: Confronting violence against lesbians and gay men. Newberry Park, Ca.: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Hong, W., Yamamoto, J., Chang, D. S., & Lee, F. (1993). Sex in a Confucian society. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 21(3), 405-419.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Kimmel, D. C., & Yi, H. (in press). Characteristics of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual, Asians, Asian Americans, and Immigrants from Asia to the US. Journal of Homosexuality.

  22. Lingiardi, V., & Drescher, J. (Eds.). (2003). The mental health profession and homosexuality: International perspectives. Binghamton, New York: Haworth Press.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Marsella, A. J. (2000). Internationalizing the psychology curriculum: Toward new competencies and directions. International Psychology Reporter, 4(3), 1-4.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Nakajima, G. A., Chan, Y. H., & Lee, K. (1996). Mental health issues for gay and lesbian Asian Americans. In R. P. Cabaj & T. S. Stein (Eds.), Textbook of homosexuality and mental health (pp. 563-582). Washinton DC: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  25. New York City Gay and Lesbian Anti-Violence Project. (2001). A report of the national coalition of anti-violence programs. New York: National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Ryam, C., & Futterman, D. (1998). Lesbian and gay youth: Care and counseling. New York: Columbia University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Savin-Williams, R. C. (1994). Verbal and physical abuse as stressors in the lives of lesbian, gay male and bisexual youths: Associations with school problems, running away, substance abuse, prostitution, and suicide. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(2), 261-269.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Shidlo, A., Schroeder, M., & Drescher, J. (Eds.). (2002). Sexual conversion therapy: Ethical, clinical, and research Perspectives. New York: Haworth Press.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Simon, A. (1998). The relationship between stereotypes of and attitudes toward lesbians and gays. In G. M. Herek. (Ed.), Stigma and sexual orientation: Understanding prejudice against lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals. Psychological perspectives on lesbian and gay issues, Vol. 4. (pp. 62-81). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Sohng, S., & Icard, L. D. (1996). A Korean gay man in the United States: Toward a cultural context for social service practice. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 5(2/3), 115-137.

    Google Scholar 

  31. World Health Organiztion. (1992). International statistical classificaiton of diseases and related health problems (10th rev.). Geneva: Author.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Yi, H. (2002, July). Online censorship and its impact on LGBT community: A response to Korea's Internet content filtering ordinance. Presented at the 52nd International Communication Association Conference, Seoul, Korea.

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sari H. Dworkin.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Dworkin, S.H., Yi, H. LGBT Identity, Violence, and Social Justice: The Psychological Is Political. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling 25, 269–279 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1023/B:ADCO.0000005526.87218.9f

Download citation

  • antigay violence
  • gay
  • lesbian
  • bisexual
  • transgender