Advertisement

Social Psychology of Education

, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 353–376 | Cite as

Understanding Place-bound Students: Correlates and Consequences of Limited Educational Opportunities

  • Nancy Shields
Article

Abstract

This study explores the concept of the ‘place-bound’ student, defined as perceived difficulty in leaving the immediate geographic area to attend school. Based on the literature, it was hypothesized that students who perceived greater difficulty would have fewer financial resources, higher external control orientation, greater attachment to family and romantic partners, and greater attachment to place. Finally, those who perceived greater difficulty were expected to be less successful academically, have lower adjustment to college scores, and have less satisfactory relationships with their parents. Availability of financial resources was not related to perceived difficulty in leaving the area. Attachment to persons and place were not related to being place-bound, except for women. For women, attachment to a romantic partner lead to greater perceived difficulty in leaving the area. However, another aspect of attachment to place, ‘rootedness,’ had highly significant effects. Women who were higher on external control were also more likely to have a greater perception of difficulty in leaving the area. More place-bound students were not found to be at a disadvantage in terms of academic performance or adjustment to the university. The findings regarding students’ relationships with their parents were interesting and contrary to prediction. Men who perceived greater difficulty reported much more satisfactory relationships with their mothers and fathers. It is suggested that these men might have chosen to stay in the area to attend school in order to remain near their families.

Keywords

Geographic Area Academic Performance Financial Resource Education Research Great Difficulty 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ainsworth, M.D.S. (1982). Attachment: Retrospect and prospect. In C.M. Parkes & J. Stevenson-Hinde (Eds.), The Place of Attachments in Human Behavior.(pp. 3–30). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, J.P. & Land, D. (1999). Attachment in adolescence. In J. Cassidy & P.R. Shaver (Eds.),Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications.New York: Guilford; pp. 319–335.Google Scholar
  3. Armsden, C.G. & Greenberg, M.T. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 427–454.Google Scholar
  4. Aspinwall, L.G. & Taylor, S.E. (1992).Modeling cognitive adaptation: a longitudinal investigation of the impact of individual differences and coping on college adjustment and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 989–1003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Behrman, J.R., Kletzer, L.G., McPherson, M.S., & Shapiro, M.O. (1995). How family background sequentially affects college choices: high school achievement, college enrollment and college quality. Duplicated.Google Scholar
  6. Behrman, J.R., Kletzer, L.G., McPherson, M.S., & Shapiro, M.O. (1998).Microeconomics of college choice, careers, and wages. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 559, 12–23.Google Scholar
  7. Bell, D.P. (1981). A National Study of Upper-level Institutions. AASCU Studies. American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  8. Berman, W.H. & Sperling, M.B. (1991). Parental attachment and emotional distress in the transition to College. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(4), 427–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Berscheid, E. (1983). Emotion in close relationships. In H.H. Kelly, E. Berscheid, A. Christensen, J. Harvey, T. Huston, G. Levinger, E. McClintock, A. Peplau, & D. Peterson (Eds.), The Psychology of Close Relationships. W.H. Freeman: New York.Google Scholar
  10. Booth-Butterfield, M. (1989). Perception of harassing communication as a function of locus of control, work force participation, and gender. 37 (4 Fall), 262–275.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, B. & Perkins, D.D. (1992). Disruptions in place attachment. In I. Altman & S.M. Low (Eds.), Place Attachment.Plenum Press: New York and London; pp. 279–304.Google Scholar
  12. Charles, N. & Davies, C.A. (2000). Cultural stereotypes and the gendering of senior management. The Sociological Review, 544–567.Google Scholar
  13. Cutrona, C., Cole, V., Colangelo, N., Assouline, S.G., & Russell, D.W. (1994). Perceived parental social support and academic achievement: an attachment theory perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(2), 369–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Discenza, R., Ferguson, J.M., & Wisner, R. (1985). Marketing higher education: using a situation analysis to identify prospective student needs in today's competitive environment. NASPA, 22, 18–25.Google Scholar
  15. Dixon, P.N. & Martin, N.K. (1991). Measuring factors that influence college choice. NASPA Journal, 29, 31–36.Google Scholar
  16. Duttweiler, P.C. (1984). The Internal Control Index: a newly developed measure of locus of control. Educational and Psychological Measurements, 44, 209–221.Google Scholar
  17. Elder, G.H., King, V., & Conger, R.D. (1996). Attachment to place and migration prospects: a developmental perspective. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 6(4), 397–425.Google Scholar
  18. Flanagan, C., Schulenberg, J., & Fuligni, A. (1993). Residential setting and parent-adolescent relationships during the college years. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 22(2), 171–189.Google Scholar
  19. Forbes, G.B. & Adams-Curtis, L.E. (2000). Gender role typing and attachment to parents and peers. The Journal of Social Psychology, 140(2), 258–260.Google Scholar
  20. Fuller, W., Manski, C., & Wise, D. (1982). New evidence on the economic determinants of postsecondary schooling choices. Journal of Human Resources, 17(4), 472–498.Google Scholar
  21. Fullilove, M.T. (1996). Psychiatric implications of displacement: contributions from the psychology of place. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153(12), 1516–1522.Google Scholar
  22. Gerson, K., Sueve, C.A., & Fischer, C.S. (1977). Attachment to place. In C.S. Fischer (Ed.), Networks and Places: Social Relations in the Urban Setting. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  23. Granqvist, P. & Hagekull, B. (2001). Seeking security in the new age: on attachment and emotional compensation. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 40(3), 527–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hazan, C. & Zeifman, D. (1999). Pair bonds as attachments: evaluating the evidence. In J. Cassidy & P.R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications.New York: Guilford; pp. 336–355.Google Scholar
  25. Heiss, G.E., Berman, W.H., & Sperling, M.B. (1996). Five scales in search of a construct: exploring continued attachment to parents in college students. Journal of Personality Assessment, 671, 102–115.Google Scholar
  26. Hossler, D. & Gallgher, K.S. (1987). Studying student college choice: a three-phase model and the implications for policymakers. College and University, Spring, 207–221.Google Scholar
  27. Jacobs, K.W. (1993). Psychometric properties of the Internal Control Index. Psychological Reports, 73, 251–255.Google Scholar
  28. Kapalka, G.M. & Lachenmeyer, J.R. (1988). Sex-role flexibility, locus of control, and occupational status. Sex Roles, 19(7-8 Oct.), 417–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Larose, S. & Boivin, M. (1998). Social support expectations, and socioemotional adjustment during the high school-college transition. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 81, 1–27.Google Scholar
  30. Low, S.M. & Altman, I. (1992). Place attachment: a conceptual inquiry. Human behavior and environment: advances in theory and research. 12, 1–12.Google Scholar
  31. McBroom, W.H. (1985). The influence of parental status variables on the status aspirations of youth. Adolescence, 77, 115–127.Google Scholar
  32. McDonough, P.M., Antonio, A.L., & Trent, J.W. (1997). Black students, black colleges: an African American college choice model. Journal for a Just and Caring Education, 1, 9–36.Google Scholar
  33. Manski, C.F., Wise, D.A. (1983). College Choice in America. Cambridge, MA: Howard University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Martin, N.K. & Dixon, P.N. (1991). Factors influencing students' college choice. Journal of College Student Development, 32, 253–257.Google Scholar
  35. Meyers, L.S. & Wong, D.T. (1988). Validation of a new test of locus of control: the Internal Control Index. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 48, 753–761.Google Scholar
  36. Murphy, P.E. (1981). Consumer buying roles in college choice. College and University, Winter, 141–150.Google Scholar
  37. O'Koon, J. (1997). Attachment to parents and peers in late adolescence and their relationship with self image. Adolescence, 32(126), 471–482.Google Scholar
  38. Peachey, P. (1981). The residential area bond. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
  39. Proshansky, H.M. (1978). The city and self-identity. Environment and Behavior, 10(2), 147–169.Google Scholar
  40. Rotter, J.B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80(1).Google Scholar
  41. Rotter, J.B. (1990). Internal versus external control of reinforcement: a case history of a variable. American Psychologist, 45, 489–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Samuolis, J., Layburn, K., & Schiaffino, K.M. (2001). Identity development and attachment to parents in college students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(3), 373–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Seppanen, L. (1988). Current Student Survey, Winter 1988. Washington Community Colleges Summary of Survey of Students in State-Supported Vocational and Academic Courses at Nine Representative Colleges. Washington State Board for Community College Education, Olympia Division for Informational Services, Research and Evaluation.Google Scholar
  44. Sewell, W.H. & Hauser, R.M. (1975). Education, Occupation and Earnings: Achievement in Early Career. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  45. Shumaker, S.A. & Taylor, R.B. (1982). Toward a clarification of people-place relationships: a model of attachment to place.Google Scholar
  46. Spence, D.S. (1981). Funding for Higher Education Enrollment Shifts in the 80s. Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
  47. Stokols, D. & Shumaker, S.A. (1981). People in places: a transactional view of settings. In Harvey, J.H. (Ed.), Cognition Social Behavior, and the Environment. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  48. Stokols, D. & Shumaker, S.A. (1982). The psychological context of residential mobility and wellbeing. Journal of Social Issues, 38(3), 149–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Strang, S.P. & Orlofsky, J.L. (1990). Factors underlying suicidal ideation among college students: a test of Teicher and Jacobs' model. Journal of Adolescence, 13(1), 39–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sullivan, K. & Sullivan, A. (1980). Adolescent-parent separation. Developmental Psychology, 16, 93–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Thibaut, J.W. & Kelley, H.H. (1959). The Social Psychology of Groups.New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  52. Trice, A.D. (1985). An academic locus of control scale for college students. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 61, 1043–1046.Google Scholar
  53. Vobejda, B. (1991). Declarations of dependence: it's taking longer to become an adult. The Washington Post National Weekly Edition, Sept. 23-29, 9–10.Google Scholar
  54. Weinfield, N.S., Sroufe, L.A., Egeland, B., & Carlson, E.A. (1999). The nature of individual differences in infant-caregiver attachment. In J. Cassidy & P.R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications, New York: Guilford; pp. 68–88.Google Scholar
  55. Werner, C.M., Altman, I., & Oxley, D. (1985). Temporal aspects of homes: a transactional perspective. In I. Altman and C.M. Werner (Eds.), Home Environments. Human Behavior and Environment: Advances in Theory and Research, (Vol. 8). New York: Plenum; pp. 1–32.Google Scholar
  56. White, M.J. (1985). Determinants of community satisfaction in Middletown. American Journal of Community Psychology, 13(5), 583–595.Google Scholar
  57. Young, M.E.,Reyes, P. (1987). Conceptualizing enrollment behavior. Journal of Student Financial Aid, 17(3), 41–49.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nancy Shields
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of Missouri-St. LouisSt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations