Sex Roles

, Volume 50, Issue 7–8, pp 525–537 | Cite as

Adolescent Bullying, Relationships, Psychological Well-Being, and Gender-Atypical Behavior: A Gender Diagnosticity Approach

  • Robert Young
  • Helen Sweeting


In this study we used a gender diagnostic (GD) approach to examine the associations between gender-atypical behavior and gender role (masculinity—M and femininity—F), bullying, peer relationships, and psychological well-being in a large community sample of 15-year-olds. GD showed little relationship with gender role. Irrespective of sex, M was positively, and F negatively associated with being a bully. “Gender atypical” boys reported more victimization, more loneliness, fewer male friends, and greater distress than their “gender typical” peers. After accounting for M and F, “femaleness” (“gender atypical” boys and “extremely gender-typed” girls) was associated with psychological distress. GD is an effective and unobtrusive method to identify a group whose vulnerability should be recognized by psychology, health, and education professionals.

adolescents gender role bullying relationships psychological well-being 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Young
    • 1
  • Helen Sweeting
    • 1
  1. 1.MRC Social and Public Health Sciences UnitUniversity of GlasgowScotlandUnited Kingdom

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