Advertisement

Natural Hazards

, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 59–88 | Cite as

1998 Adana-Ceyhan (Turkey) Earthquake and a Preliminary Microzonation Based on Liquefaction Potential for Ceyhan Town

  • Resat Ulusay
  • Turgay Kuru
Article

Abstract

A moderate earthquake (M s = 6.2) occurred in the Cukurova region in the southern part of Turkey, on 27 June 1998. It resulted in loss of 145 lives and significant damage particularly in the settlements close to the epicenter at the south of Ceyhan town. Widespread liquefaction and associated sand boils, ground fissures and ground deformations due to lateral spreading occurred during this earthquake. In this study, main characteristics of the earthquake are presented and liquefaction throughout the site was assessed. An attempt was also made to establish preliminary microzonation maps for Ceyhan using the data from liquefaction susceptibility analyses. The results of the analyses indicated that the data from the liquefied sites were within the empirical bounds suggested by the field-performance evaluation method. Fortunately, most of the riversides were used for agricultural purposes alone, damage to structures from liquefaction and associated ground failures were rather limited. Preliminary assessments indicated that at depths of about 5 m the liquefaction potential of thin sand layers tends to diminish.

Adana-Ceyhan (Turkey) earthquake Cukurova lateral spreading liquefaction microzonation soil amplification 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ambraseys, N. N. and Adams, R. D.: 1992, Seismicity of the Cyprus region, Engineering Seismology and Earthquake Engineering Report No. 92–9.Google Scholar
  2. Andrews, D. C. and Martin, G. R.: 2000. Criteria for liquefaction of silty sands, 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Auckland, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  3. Aydan, O.: 1997, The seismic characteristics and the occurrence pattern of Turkish earthquakes, Turkish Earthquake Foundation Report TDV/TR 97–007.Google Scholar
  4. Aydan, O., Sezaki, M., and Yarar, T.: 1996, The seismic characteristics of Turkish earthquakes, In: 11th Proc. International Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Acapulco, Mexico, pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
  5. Aydan, O., Ulusay, R., Sonmez, H., and Tuncay, E.: 1998, A site investigation of Adana-Ceyhan earthquake of June 27, 1998, Turkish Earthquake Foundation Report TDV/DR 006–30.Google Scholar
  6. Cetin, H.: 1995, Report on the boreholes of bridge construction on Kadirli-Osmaniye road, Report of the General Directorate of Turkish Highways (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  7. Demirtas, R.: 1998, The Ceyhan-Misis earthquake of June 27, 1998: Liquefaction and trench studies, Bulletin of Geological Engineers of Turkey 53, 40–57 (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  8. DSI: 1984, Hydrogeological investigation report of Kadirli-Kozan-Ceyhan plain, Report of the General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  9. Efe, R. and Sekin, S.: 1998, 27 June 1998 Adana-Ceyhan earthquake, Report of Fatih University, Istanbul (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  10. ERD: 1998, Preliminary report on Adana-Ceyhan earthquake. Internet web site of the Earthquake Research Department, General Directorate of Disaster Affairs (www.deprem.gov.tr) (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  11. ERD: 2000, Internet web site of the Earthquake Research Department, General Directorate of Disaster Affairs (www.deprem.gov.tr) (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  12. Fukushima, Y., Tanaka, T., and Kataoka, S.: 1988, A new attenuation relationship for peak ground accelerations. Proc. 9th WCCE, Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
  13. Gulkan, P.: 1998 The Ceyhan-Misis earthquake of June 27 1998. A preliminary engineering reconnaissance report, Technical Report of Middle East Technical University Disaster Management Implementation and Research Center, Ankara.Google Scholar
  14. Inan, E., Colakoglu, Z., Koc, N., Bayulke, N., and Coruh, E.: 1996, Catalogue of earthquakes between 1976–1996 with acceleration records. ERD, General Directorate of Disaster Affairs of Public Works and Settlement, Ankara, 150 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Ishihara, K.: 1985, Stability of natural deposits during earthquakes, In: A. A. Balkema (ed.), Proc. 11th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Vol. 1, Rotterdam, pp. 321–376.Google Scholar
  16. Iwasaki, T., Tokida, K., Tatsuoka, F., Watanabe, S., Yasuda, S., and Sato, H.: 1982, Microzonation for soil liquefaction potential using simplified methods. In: Proc. 3rd International Conference on Microzonation, Vol. 3, Seattle, pp. 1319–1330.Google Scholar
  17. Joyner, W. B. and Boore, D. M.: 1981, Peak horizontal acceleration and velocity from strong-motion records from the 1997 Imperial Valley, California earthquake, Bull. Seis. Am. 71(6), 2011–2038.Google Scholar
  18. Kozlu, H.: 1987, Structural development and stratigraphy of Misis-Andirin basin, Proc. 7th Biannual Petroleum Congress of Turkey, Ankara, Turkey, pp. 104–116 (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  19. Kramer, S. L.: 1996, Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, pp. 79–82.Google Scholar
  20. Nurlu, M.: 1998, June 27 1998 Adana-Ceyhan earthquake, Report of Earthquake Research Department of the General Directorate of Disaster Affairs (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  21. Schmidt, G. C.: 1961, Stratigraphic nomenclature for the Adana region petroleum district, In: Proc. 7th Petroleum Administration Publication Bulletin 6, 47–63.Google Scholar
  22. Seed, H. and Idriss, I. M.: 1971, Simplified procedure for evaluating soil liquefaction potential, J. Soil Mech. Found. Div., ASCE 97(SM9), 1249–1273.Google Scholar
  23. Seed, H. and Idriss, I. M.: 1982, Ground Motions and Soil Liquefaction during Earthquakes, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute Monograph.Google Scholar
  24. Seed, H. and DeAlba, P.: 1986, Use of the SPT and CPT tests for evaluating the liquefaction resistance of sands, In: Use of In-situ Tests in Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication, Vol. 6, pp. 281–302.Google Scholar
  25. Seed, H. and Harder, L.F.: 1990, SPT-based analysis of cyclic pressure generation and undrained residual strength, Proc. H. Bolton Seed Memorial Symposium, BiTech Publishers Ltd., pp. 351–376.Google Scholar
  26. Seed, H. B., Tokimatsu, K., Harder, L. F., and Chung, R. M.: 1985, Influence of SPT procedures in soil liquefaction resistance evaluations, J. Geotech. Engng. Div., ASCE 111(2), 1425–1445.Google Scholar
  27. Sengor, A. M. C., Gorur, N., and Saroglu, F.: 1985, Strike-Slip Faulting and Related Basin Formation in Zones of Tectonic Escape: Turkey as a Case Study, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication No. 37, pp. 227–264.Google Scholar
  28. Tatsuoka, F., Iwasaki, T., Tokida, K., Yasuda, S., Hirose, M., Imai, T., and Konno, M.: 1980, Standard Penetration Tests and soil liquefaction potential evaluation, Soils and Foundations 20(4), 95–111.Google Scholar
  29. Technical Committee for Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering: 1999, Manual for Zonation on Seismic Geotechnical Hazards, The Japanese Geotechnical Society, Tokyo, pp. 83–99.Google Scholar
  30. Tezcan, S. and Boduroglu, H.: 1998, A reconnaissance report — June 27, 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake, Turkey, Turkish Earthquake Foundation Report TDV/DR 98–026.Google Scholar
  31. Tokimatsu, K. and Yoshimi, Y.: 1983, Empirical correlation of soil liquefaction based on SPT-N value and fines content, Soils Found. 23(4), 56–74.Google Scholar
  32. Ulusay, R., Aydan, O., Kumsar, H., and Sonmez, H.: 2000, Engineering geological characteristics of the 1998 Adana-Ceyhan earthquake, with particular emphasis on liquefaction phenomena and the role of soil behavior, Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ. 59(2), 99–118.Google Scholar
  33. Yetis, C.: 1988, Reorganization of the Tertiary stratigraphy in the Adana basin, Newslt. Stratig. 20(1), 43–58.Google Scholar
  34. Youd, T. L.: 1984, Geologic effects-liquefaction and associated ground failure, Proc. Geologic and Hydrologic Hazards Training Program, Open file Report 84–760, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California, pp. 210–232.Google Scholar
  35. Youd, T. L. and Garris, C. T.: 1995, Liquefaction-induced ground-surface disruption, J. Geotech. Eng. 121(11), 805–809.Google Scholar
  36. Youd, T. L. and Idriss, I. M. (eds.): 1997, Proc. NCEER Workshop on Evaluation of Liquefaction Resistance of Soils, Nat. for Earthquake Engrg. Res., State University of New York at Buffalo.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Resat Ulusay
    • 1
  • Turgay Kuru
    • 1
  1. 1.Earthquake Research Department, General Directorate of Disaster AffairsTurkey

Personalised recommendations