Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

, Volume 255, Issue 1–2, pp 67–78 | Cite as

Oxidative mechanism of arsenic toxicity and carcinogenesis

  • Honglian Shi
  • Xianglin Shi
  • Ke Jian Liu
Article

Abstract

Arsenic is a known toxin and carcinogen that is present in industrial settings and in the environment. The mechanisms of disease initiation and progression are not fully understood. In the last a few years, there has been increasing evidence of the correlation between the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, tumor promotion, and arsenic exposure. This article summarizes the current literature on the arsenic mediated generation of ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in various biological systems. This article also discusses the role of ROS and RNS in arsenic-induced DNA damage and activation of oxidative sensitive gene expression.

arsenic free radicals oxidative stress signal transduction carcinogenesis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    WHO: Environmental Health Criteria 224-Arsenic. International Programme on Chemical Safety, Geneva, 2001Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hopenhayn-Rich C, Biggs ML, Smith AH, Kalman DA, Moore LE: Methylation study of a population environmentally exposed to arsenic in drinking water. Environ Health Perspect 104: 620–628, 1996Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tam GK, Charbonneau SM, Bryce F, Pomroy C, Sandi E: Metabolism of inorganic arsenic (74As) in humans following oral ingestion. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 50: 319–322, 1979Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Foa V, Colombi A, Maroni M, Buratti M, Calzaferri G: The speciation of the chemical forms of arsenic in the biological monitoring of exposure to inorganic arsenic. Sci Total Environ 34: 241–259, 1984Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cullen WR, Reimer KJ: Arsenic speciation in the environment. Chem Rev 89: 713–764, 1989Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mandal BK, Ogra Y, Suzuki KT: Identification of dimethylarsinous and monomethylarsonous acids in human urine of the arsenic-affected areas in West Bengal, India. Chem Res Toxicol 14: 371–378, 2001Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vahter M, Concha G: Role of metabolism in arsenic toxicity. Pharm Toxicol 89: 1–5, 2001Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yamanaka K, Katsumata K, Ikuma K, Hasegawa A, Nakano M, Okada S: The role of orally administered dimethylarsinic acid, a main metabolite of inorganic arsenics, in the promotion and progression of UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis in hairless mice. Cancer Lett 152: 79–85, 2000Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hughes MF, Del Razo LM, Kenyon EM: Dose-dependent effects on tissue distribution and metabolism of dimethylarsinic acid in the mouse after intravenous administration. Toxicology 143: 155–166, 2000Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Li W, Wanibuchi H, Salim EI, Yamamoto S, Yoshida K, Endo G, Fukushima S: Promotion of NCI-Black-Reiter male rat bladder carcinogenesis by dimethylarsinic acid an organic arsenic compound. Cancer Lett 134: 29–36, 1998Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hayashi H, Kanisawa M, Yamanaka K, Ito T, Udaka N, Ohji H, Okudela K, Okada S, Kitamura H: Dimethylarsinic acid, a main metabolite of inorganic arsenics, has tumorigenicity and progression effects in the pulmonary tumors of A/J mice. Cancer Lett 125: 83–88, 1998Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lee TC, Tanaka N, Lamb PW, Gilmer TM, Barrett JC: Induction of gene amplification by arsenic. Science 241: 79–81, 1988Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Barrett JC, Lamb PW, Wang TC, Lee TC: Mechanisms of arsenic-induced cell transformation. Biol Trace Elem Res 21: 421–429, 1989Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vahter M, Envall J: In vivo reduction of arsenate in mice and rabbits. Environ Res 32: 14–24, 1983Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yamauchi H, Yamamura Y: Urinary inorganic arsenic and methylarsenic excretion following arsenate-rich seaweed ingestion. Sangyo Igaku — Jpn J Industrial Health 21: 47–54, 1979Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chiou HY, Chiou ST, Hsu YH, Chou YL, Tseng CH, Wei ML, Chen CJ: Incidence of transitional cell carcinoma and arsenic in drinking water: a follow-up study of 8,102 residents in an arseniasis-endemic area in northeastern Taiwan. Am J Epidemiol 153: 411–418, 2001Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Smith AH, Goycolea M, Haque R, Biggs ML: Marked increase in bladder and lung cancer mortality in a region of Northern Chile due to arsenic in drinking water. Am J Epidemiol 147: 660–669, 1998Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Steinmaus C, Moore L, Hopenhayn-Rich C, Biggs ML, Smith AH: Arsenic in drinking water and bladder cancer. Cancer Invest 18: 174–182, 2000Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tseng WP, Chu HM, How SW, Fong JM, Lin CS, Yeh S: Prevalence of skin cancer in an endemic area of chronic arsenicism in Taiwan. J Natl Cancer Inst 40: 453–463, 1968Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ferreccio C, Gonzalez Psych C, Milosavjlevic Stat V, Marshall Gredis G, Sancha AM: Lung cancer and arsenic exposure in drinking water: A case-control study in northern Chile. Cadernos de Saude Publica 14(Suppl 3): 193–198, 1998Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bates MN, Smith AH, Hopenhayn-Rich C: Arsenic ingestion and internal cancers: A review. Am J Epidemiol 135: 462–476, 1992Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bates MN, Smith AH, Cantor KP: Case-control study of bladder cancer and arsenic in drinking water. Am J Epidemiol 141: 523–530, 1995Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schwartz RA: Arsenic and the skin. Int J Dermatol 36: 241–250, 1997Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yeh S: Skin cancer in chronic arsenicism. Human Pathol 4: 469–485, 1973Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Blot WJ, Fraumeni JF Jr: Arsenical air pollution and lung cancer. Lancet 2: 142–144, 1975Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tseng CH, Chong CK, Chen CJ, Tai TY: Dose-response relationship between peripheral vascular disease and ingested inorganic arsenic among residents in blackfoot disease endemic villages in Taiwan. Atherosclerosis 120: 125–133, 1996Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tseng CH, Chong CK, Heng LT, Tseng CP, Tai TY: The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 50(suppl 2): S61–S64, 2000Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Engel RR, Hopenhayn-Rich C, Receveur O, Smith AH: Vascular effects of chronic arsenic exposure: A review. Epidemiol Rev 16: 184–209, 1994Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wiseman H: Damage to DNA by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: Role in inflammatory disease and progression to cancer. Biochem J 313: 17–29, 1996Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Imlay JA: Toxic DNA damage by hydrogen peroxide through the Fenton reaction in vivo and in vitro. Science 240: 640–642, 1988Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Iwama K, Nakajo S, Aiuchi T, Nakaya K: Apoptosis induced by arsenic trioxide in leukemia U937 cells is dependent on activation of p38, inactivation of ERK and the Ca2+-dependent production of superoxide. Inter J Cancer 92: 518–526, 2001Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lynn S, Gurr JR, Lai HT, Jan KY: NADH oxidase activation is involved in arsenite-induced oxidative DNA damage in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Circ Res 86: 514–519, 2000Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Liu SX, Athar M, Lippai I, Waldren C, Hei TK: Induction of oxyradicals by arsenic: Implication for mechanism of genotoxicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 1643–1648, 2001Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Barchowsky A, Klei LR, Dudek EJ, Swartz HM, James PE: Stimulation of reactive oxygen, but not reactive nitrogen species, in vascular endothelial cells exposed to low levels of arsenite. Free Radic Biol Med 27: 1405–1412, 1999Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Corsini E, Asti L, Viviani B, Marinovich M, Galli CL: Sodium arsenate induces overproduction of interleukin-1alpha in murine keratinocytes: Role of mitochondria. J Invest Dermatol 113: 760–765, 1999Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jing Y, Dai J, Chalmers-Redman RM, Tatton WG, Waxman S: Arsenic trioxide selectively induces acute promyelocytic leukemia cell apoptosis via a hydrogen peroxide-dependent pathway. Blood 94: 2102–2111, 1999Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wang TS, Kuo CF, Jan KY, Huang H: Arsenite induces apoptosis in Chinese hamster ovary cells by generation of reactive oxygen species. J Cell Physiol 169: 256–268, 1996Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cantoni O: Cross-resistance to heavy metals in hydrogen peroxide-resistant CHO cell variants. Mutat Res 324: 1–6, 1994Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Li Y: Diphenyleneiodonium, an NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor, also potently inhibits mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 253: 295–299, 1998Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Liu F, Jan KY: DNA damage in arsenite-and cadmium-treated bovine aortic endothelial cells. Free Radic Biol Med 28: 55–63, 2000Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Yamanaka K, Mizol M, Kato K, Hasegawa A, Nakano M, Okada S: Oral administration of dimethylarsinic acid, a main metabolite of inorganic arsenic, in mice promotes skin tumorigenesis initiated by dimethylbenz(a)anthracene with or without ultraviolet B as a promoter. Biol Pharm Bull 24: 510–514, 2001Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yamanaka K, Hayashi H, Tachikawa M, Kato K, Hasegawa A, Oku N, Okada S: Metabolic methylation is a possible genotoxicity-enhancing process of inorganic arsenics. Mutat Res 394: 95–101, 1997Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Yamanaka K, Hasegawa A, Sawamura R, Okada S: Cellular response to oxidative damage in lung induced by the administration of dimethylarsinic acid, a major metabolite of inorganic arsenics, in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 108: 205–213, 1991Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yamanaka K, Hoshino M, Okamoto M, Sawamura R, Hasegawa A, Okada S: Induction of DNA damage by dimethylarsine, a metabolite of inorganic arsenics, is for the major part likely due to its peroxyl radical. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 168: 58–64, 1990Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Yamanaka K, Okada S: Induction of lung-specific DNA damage by metabolically methylated arsenics via the production of free radicals. Environ Health Perspect 102(suppl 3): 37–40, 1994Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Yamazaki I: ESR spin-trapping studies on the reaction of Fe2+ ions with H2O2-reactive species in oxygen toxicity in biology. J Biol Chem 265: 13589–13594, 1990Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ahmad S, Kitchin KT, Cullen WR: Arsenic species that cause release of iron from ferritin and generation of activated oxygen. Arch Biochem Biophys 382: 195–202, 2000Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Del Razo LM, Quintanilla-Vega B, Brambila-Colombres E, Calderon-Aranda ES, Manno M, Albores A: Stress proteins induced by arsenic. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 177: 132–148, 2001Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Pi J, Kumagai Y, Sun G, Yamauchi H, Yoshida T, Iso H, Endo A, Yu L, Yuki K, Miyauchi T, Shimojo N: Decreased serum concentrations of nitric oxide metabolites among Chinese in an endemic area of chronic arsenic poisoning in inner Mongolia. Free Radic Biol Med 28: 1137–1142, 2000Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Christodoulides N: Vascular smooth muscle cell heme oxygenases generate guanylyl cyclase-stimulatory carbon monoxide. Circulation 91: 2306–2309, 1995Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    de Vera ME: Heat shock response inhibits cytokine-inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in rat hepatocytes. Hepatology 24: 1238–1245, 1996Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wong HR: Expression of iNOS in cultured rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells is inhibited by the heat shock response. Am J Physiol 269: L843–L848, 1995Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lynn S, Shiung JN, Gurr JR, Jan KY: Arsenite stimulates poly(ADP-ribosylation) by generation of nitric oxide. Free Radic Biol Med 24: 442–449, 1998Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hahn SM: Evaluation of the hydroxylamine Tempol-H as an in vivo radioprotector. Free Radic Biol Med 28: 953–958, 2000Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Mordan LJ: Inhibitors of endogenous nitrogen oxide formation block the promotion of neoplastic transformation in C3H 10T1/2 fibroblasts. Carcinogenesis 14: 1555–1559, 1993Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bau DT: Nitric oxide is involved in arsenite inhibition of pyrimidine dimer excision. Carcinogenesis 22: 709–716, 2001Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dikalov S: Detection of superoxide radicals and peroxynitrite by 1-hydroxy-4-phosphonooxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine: Quantification of extracellular superoxide radicals formation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 248: 211–215, 1998Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Brazy PC, Balaban RS, Gullans SR, Mandel LJ, Dennis VW: Inhibition of renal metabolism. Relative effects of arsenate on sodium, phosphate, and glucose transport by the rabbit proximal tubule. J Clin Invest 66: 1211–1221, 1980Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Noguchi N, Niki E: Chemistry of active oxygen species and antioxidant, in Antioxidant status, diet, nutrition, and health. In: A.M. Papas (ed). CRC Press: New York, 1999, pp 3–20Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wang TS, Shu YF, Liu YC, Jan KY, Huang H: Glutathione peroxidase and catalase modulate the genotoxicity of arsenite. Toxicology 121: 229–237, 1997Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Nordenson I, Beckman L: Is the genotoxic effect of arsenic mediated by oxygen free radicals? Hum Hered 41: 71–73, 1991Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Wang TS, Huang H: Active oxygen species are involved in the induction of micronuclei by arsenite in XRS-5 cells. Mutagenesis 9: 253–257, 1994Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lee T, Cho IC: Modulation of cellular antioxidant defense activities by sodium arsenite in human fibroblasts. Arch Toxicol 69: 498–504, 1995Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Maeda H, Hori S, Nishitoh H, Ichijo H, Ogawa O, Kakehi Y, Kakizuka A: Tumor growth inhibition by arsenic trioxide (As2O3) in the orthotopic metastasis model of androgen-independent prostate cancer. Cancer Res 61: 5432–5440, 2001Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Chen YC, Lin-Shiau SY, Lin JK: Involvement of reactive oxygen species and caspase 3 activation in arsenite-induced apoptosis. J Cell Physiol 177: 324–333, 1998Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tsai SH, Hsieh MS, Chen L, Liang YC, Lin JK, Lin SY: Suppression of Fas ligand expression on endothelial cells by arsenite through reactive oxygen species. Toxicol Lett 123: 11–19, 2001Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Flora SJ: Arsenic-induced oxidative stress and its reversibility following combined administration of N-acetylcysteine and meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid in rats. Clin Exper Pharm Physiol 26: 865–869, 1999Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Nakamuro K, Sayato Y: Comparative studies of chromosomal aberration induced by trivalent and pentavalent arsenic. Mut Res 88: 73–80, 1981Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Mouron SA, Golijow CD, Dulout FN: DNA damage by cadmium and arsenic salts assessed by the single cell gel electrophoresis assay. Mutat Res 498: 47–55, 2001Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Zhao CQ, Young MR, Diwan BA, Coogan TP, Waalkes MP: Association of arsenic-induced malignant transformation with DNA hypomethylation and aberrant gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 10907–10912, 1997Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hartwig A, Groblinghoff UD, Beyersmann D, Natarajan AT, Filon R, Mullenders LH: Interaction of arsenic(III) with nucleotide excision repair in UV-irradiated human fibroblasts. Carcinogenesis 18: 399–405, 1997Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wang TC: Delay of the excision of UV light-induced DNA adducts is involved in the coclastogenicity of UV light plus arsenite. Int J Rad Biol 66: 367–372, 1994Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lynn S, Lai HT, Gurr JR, Jan KY: Arsenite retards DNA break rejoining by inhibiting DNA ligation. Mutagenesis 12: 353–358, 1997Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lee-Chen SF, Gurr JR, Lin IB, Jan KY: Arsenite enhances DNA double-strand breaks and cell killing of methyl methanesulfonate-treated cells by inhibiting the excision of alkali-labile sites. Mutat Res 294: 21–28, 1993Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Li JH, Rossman TG: Mechanism of comutagenesis of sodium arsenite with n-methyl-n-nitrosourea. Biol Trace Elem Res 21: 373–381, 1989Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Yih LH, Lee TC: Arsenite induces p53 accumulation through an ATM-dependent pathway in human fibroblasts. Cancer Res 60: 6346–6352, 2000Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lee-Chen SF: Differential effects of luminol, nickel, and arsenite on the rejoining of ultraviolet light and alkylation-induced DNA breaks. Environ Mol Mutagen 23: 116–120, 1994Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hartmann A, Speit G: Comparative investigations of the genotoxic effects of metals in the single cells gel (SCG) assay and the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test. Environ Mol Mutagen 23: 299–305, 1994Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wang TS, Hsu TY, Chung CH, Wang AS, Bau DT, Jan KY: Arsenite induces oxidative DNA adducts and DNA-protein cross-links in mammalian cells. Free Radic Biol Med 31: 321–330, 2001Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Dong JT, Luo XM: Arsenic-induced DNA-strand breaks associated with DNA-protein crosslinks in human fetal lung fibroblasts. Mutat Res 302: 97–102, 1993Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ramirez P, Del Razo LM, Gutierrez-Ruiz MC, Gonsebatt ME: Arsenite induces DNA-protein crosslinks and cytokeratin expression in the WRL-68 human hepatic cell line. Carcinogenesis 21: 701–706, 2000Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Boulikas T: Relation between carcinogenesis, chromatin structure and poly(ADP-ribosylation) AntiCancer Res 11: 489–527, 1991Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Wanibuchi H, Hori T, Meenakshi V, Ichihara T, Yamamoto S, Yano Y, Otani S, Nakae D, Konishi Y, Fukushima S: Promotion of rat hepatocarcinogenesis by dimethylarsinic acid: Association with elevated ornithine decarboxylase activity and formation of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine in the liver. Jpn J Cancer Res 88: 1149–1154, 1997Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Yamanaka K, Takabayashi F, Mizoi M, An Y, Hasegawa A, Okada S: Oral exposure of dimethylarsinic acid, a main metabolite of inorganic arsenics, in mice leads to an increase in 8-Oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine level, specifically in the target organs for arsenic carcinogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 287: 66–70, 2001Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Matsui M, Nishigori C, Toyokuni S, Takada J, Akaboshi M, Ishikawa M, Imamura S, Miyachi Y: The role of oxidative DNA damage in human arsenic carcinogenesis: Detection of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine in arsenic-related Bowen's disease. J Invest Dermatol 113: 26–31, 1999Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Zaman K, Pardini RS: An insect model for assessing arsenic toxicity: Arsenic elevated glutathione content in the Musca domestica and Trichoplusia ni. Bull Environ Contamin Toxicol 55: 845–852, 1995Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Maiti S, Chatterjee AK: Effects on levels of glutathione and some related enzymes in tissues after an acute arsenic exposure in rats and their relationship to dietary protein deficiency. Arch Toxicol 75: 531–537, 2001Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Santra A, Maiti A, Das S, Lahiri S, Charkaborty SK, Mazumder DN: Hepatic damage caused by chronic arsenic toxicity in experimental animals. J Toxicol — Clin Toxicol 38: 395–405, 2000Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Singh P, Sharma R: Effect of orpiment (As2S3) on cytochrome P-450, glutathione and lipid peroxide levels of rat liver. J Environ Path, Toxic Oncol 13: 199–203, 1994Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Schinella GR, Tournier HA, Buschiazzo HO, de Buschiazzo PM: Effect of arsenic (V) on the antioxidant defense system: In vitro oxidation of rat plasma lipoprotein. Pharmacol Toxicol 79: 293–296, 1996Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Wu MM, Chiou HY, Wang TW, Hsueh YM, Wang IH, Chen CJ, Lee TC: Association of blood arsenic levels with increased reactive oxidants and decreased antioxidant capacity in a human population of northeastern Taiwan. Environ Health Perspect 109: 1011–1017, 2001Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hsueh YM, Wu WL, Huang YL, Chiou HY, Tseng CH, Chen CJ: Low serum carotene level and increased risk of ischemic heart disease related to long-term arsenic exposure. Atherosclerosis 141: 249–257, 1998Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Spear N: Effects of glutathione on Fenton reagent-dependent radical production and DNA oxidation. Arch Biochem Biophys 324: 111–116, 1995Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Radabaugh TR, Aposhian HV: Enzymatic reduction of arsenic compounds in mammalian systems: Reduction of arsenate to arsenite by human liver arsenate reductase. Chem Res Toxic 13: 26–30, 2000Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Zakharyan RA, Aposhian HV: Arsenite methylation by methylvitamin B12 and glutathione does not require an enzyme. Toxicol Appl Pharm 154: 287–291, 1999Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Tabacova S, Baird DD, Balabaeva L, Lolova D, Petrov I: Placental arsenic and cadmium in relation to lipid peroxides and glutathione levels in maternal-infant pairs from a copper smelter area. Placenta 15, 873–881, 1994Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Santra A, Maiti A, Chowdhury A, Mazumder DN: Oxidative stress in liver of mice exposed to arsenic-contaminated water. Indian J Gastroenter 19: 112–115, 2000Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Barchowsky A, Dudek EJ, Treadwell MD, Wetterhahn KE: Arsenic induces oxidant stress and NF-kappa B activation in cultured aortic endothelial cells. Free Radic Biol Med 21: 783–790, 1996Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Deneke SM: Induction of cystine transport in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells by sodium arsenite. Biochim Biophys Acta 1109: 127–131, 1992Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mylona PV, Polidoros AN, Scandalios JG: Modulation of antioxidant responses by arsenic in maize. Free Radic Biol Med 25: 576–585, 1998Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lin S, Del Razo LM, Styblo M, Wang C, Cullen WR, Thomas DJ: Arsenicals inhibit thioredoxin reductase in cultured rat hepatocytes. Chem Res Toxicol 14: 305–311, 2001Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Lindner DJ: The interferon-beta and tamoxifen combination induces apoptosis using thioredoxin reductase. Biochim Biophys Acta 1496: 196–206, 2000Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Powis G: The role of the redox protein thioredoxin in cell growth and cancer. Free Radic Biol Med 29: 312–322, 2000Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Arner ES: Physiological functions of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase. Eur J Biochem 267: 6102–6109, 2000Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Baeuerle PA: Function and activation of NF-kappa B in the immune system. Ann Rev Immunol 12: 141–179, 1994Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ilnicka M: Antioxidants inhibit activation of transcription factors and cytokine gene transcription in monocytes. Ann NY Acad Sci 696: 396–398, 1993Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lee SW: Hydrogen peroxide primes promonocytic U937 cells to produce IL-1 beta. Ann NY Acad Sci 696: 399–401, 1993Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Germolec DR, Spalding J, Boorman GA, Wilmer JL, Yoshida T, Simeonova PP, Bruccoleri A, Kayama F, Gaido K, Tennant R, Burleson F, Dong W, Lang RW, Luster MI: Arsenic can mediate skin neoplasia by chronic stimulation of keratinocyte-derived growth factors. Mutat Res 386: 209–218, 1997Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Cavigelli M, Li WW, Lin A, Su B, Yoshioka K, Karin M: The tumor promoter arsenite stimulates AP-1 activity by inhibiting a JNK phosphatase. EMBO J 15: 6269–6279, 1996Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Karin M: JNK or IKK, AP-1 or NF-kappaB, which are the targets for MEK kinase 1 action? Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 9067–9069, 1998Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Chen F, Lu Y, Zhang Z, Vallyathan V, Ding M, Castranova V, Shi X: Opposite effect of NF-kappa B and c-Jun N-terminal kinase on p53-independent GADD45 induction by arsenite. J Biol Chem 276: 11414–11419, 2001Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Tully DB, Collins BJ, Overstreet JD, Smith CS, Dinse GE, Mumtaz MM, Chapin RE: Effects of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and lead on gene expression regulated by a battery of 13 different promoters in recombinant HepG2 cells. Toxicol Appl Pharm 168: 79–90, 2000Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Kaltreider RC, Pesce CA, Ihnat MA, Lariviere JP, Hamilton JW: Differential effects of arsenic(III) and chromium(VI) on nuclear transcription factor binding. Mol Carcinogen 25: 219–229, 1999Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Wijeweera JB, Gandolfi AJ, Parrish A, Lantz RC: Sodium arsenite enhances AP-1 and NFkappaB DNA binding and induces stress protein expression in precision-cut rat lung slices. Toxicol Sci 61: 283–294, 2001Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Simeonova PP, Wang S, Toriuma W, Kommineni V, Matheson J, Unimye N, Kayama F, Harki D, Ding M, Vallyathan V, Luster MI: Arsenic mediates cell proliferation and gene expression in the bladder epithelium: association with activating protein-1 transactivation. Cancer Res 60: 3445–3453, 2000Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Liu J, Kadiiska MB, Liu Y, Lu T, Qu W, Waalkes MP: Stress-related gene expression in mice treated with inorganic arsenicals. Toxicol Sci 61: 314–320, 2001Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Salazar AM, Ostrosky-Wegman P, Menendez D, Miranda E, Garcia-Carranca A, Rojas E: Induction of p53 protein expression by sodium arsenite. Mutat Res 381: 259–265, 1997Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Vogt BL, Rossman TG: Effects of arsenite on p53, p21 and cyclin D expression in normal human fibroblasts — a possible mechanism for arsenite's comutagenicity. Mutat Res 478: 159–168, 2001Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Zhang TC, Cao EH, Qin JF: Opposite biological effects of arsenic trioxide and arsacetin involve a different regulation of signaling in human gastric cancer MGC-803 cells. Pharmacology 64: 160–168, 2002Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Ishitsuka K, Hanada S, Suzuki S, Utsunomiya A, Chyuman Y, Takeuchi S, Takeshita T, Shimotakahara S, Uozumi K, Makino T, Arima T: Arsenic trioxide inhibits growth of human T-cell leukaemia virus type I infected T-cell lines more effectively than retinoic acids. Br J Haemat 103: 721–728, 1998Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Hamadeh HK, Vargas M, Lee E, Menzel DB: Arsenic disrupts cellular levels of p53 and mdm2: a potential mechanism of carcinogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 263: 446–449, 1999Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Lautier D: The role of poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism in response to active oxygen cytotoxicity. Biochim Biophys Acta 1221: 215–220, 1994Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Kapahi P, Takahashi T, Natoli G, Adams SR, Chen Y, Tsien RY, Karin M: Inhibition of NF-kappa B activation by arsenite through reaction with a critical cysteine in the activation loop of Ikappa B kinase. J Biol Chem 275: 36062–36066, 2000Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Barchowsky A, Roussel RR, Klei LR, James PE, Ganju N, Smith KR, Dudek EJ: Low levels of arsenic trioxide stimulate proliferative signals in primary vascular cells without activating stress effector pathways. Toxic Appl Pharm 159: 65–75, 1999Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Honglian Shi
    • 1
  • Xianglin Shi
    • 2
  • Ke Jian Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.College of PharmacyUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA
  2. 2.Pathology and Physiology ResearchNational Institute for Occupational Safety and HealthMorgantownUSA

Personalised recommendations