, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 49–55

The Water Quality of some Tropical Freshwater Bodies in Uyo (Nigeria) Receiving Municipal Effluents, Slaughter-House Washings and Agricultural Land Drainage

  • Anthony W. Akpan

DOI: 10.1023/B:ENVR.0000046346.93401.5c

Cite this article as:
Akpan, A.W. The Environmentalist (2004) 24: 49. doi:10.1023/B:ENVR.0000046346.93401.5c


The water quality of some tropical fresh-water bodies in Uyo (Nigeria) was investigated for two years in relation to point and non-point source city effluents and slaughter-house washings discharged into them. Streams which received city effluents and slaughter-house washings were degraded in quality with acidic water (pH =5.26±0.83 to 6.20±0.56), low oxygenation (2.46±1.30 to 3.88±0.29 mg l−1), high biochemical oxygen demand (4.96±0.66 to 8.20±0.82 mg l−1) and chemical oxygen demand (88.60±3.50 to 146.36±9.86 mg l−1) than non-effluent receiving streams. High acidity in streams is due mainly to the acidic nature of underground water which replenishes the streams. Nutrient levels were high indicating enrichment from highly fertilized farmlands and slaughter-house washings. The concentrations of most of the hydrochemical variables were significantly lower in non-effluent than effluent-receiving streams. Some of the hydrochemical variables (total alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, phosphate and conductivity) exhibited pronounced seasonality regimes with significant correlations with rainfall indicating its influence on the chemical hydrology of the water bodies. Land use in the catchment influenced water quality through inflow of nutrients, organic and inorganic contaminants and siltation. Pollution in the impacted streams is attributed mainly to episodic events.

tropical streams effluents land use water quality 

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony W. Akpan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of UyoAkwa Ibom StateNigeria

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