Theory and Decision

, Volume 54, Issue 3, pp 207–229

Multiple Prisoner's Dilemma Games with(out) an Outside Option: an Experimental Study

  • Esther Hauk

DOI: 10.1023/A:1027385819400

Cite this article as:
Hauk, E. Theory and Decision (2003) 54: 207. doi:10.1023/A:1027385819400


Experiments in which subjects play simultaneously several finite two-person prisoner's dilemma supergames with and without an outside option reveal that: (i) an attractive outside option enhances cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game, (ii) if the payoff for mutual defection is negative, subjects' tendency to avoid losses leads them to cooperate; while this tendency makes them stick to mutual defection if its payoff is positive, (iii) subjects use probabilistic start and endeffect behavior.

Prisoner's dilemma Cooperation Exit Experiments Loss aversion 

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Esther Hauk
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Economics and BusinessUniversitat Pompeu FabraBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations