The reproduction of carp Cyprinus carpio L. (Family: Cyprinidae), from Victorian waters in Australia, is studied with detailed analysis of gonad maturation, spawning season, fecundity and oocyte diameter. Results show that carp has a high annual fecundity (AF) (0.12–1.54 million oocytes per fish), which is positively correlated with caudal fork-length (L, mm) and total weight (W, kg) but not age. The relationships between length or weight and AF were statistically significant and best described with the simple linear or quadratic regressions. Mean relative fecundity was 0.163 million eggs kg−1 whole weight. Egg size was estimated from oocyte diameter in carp from eight stocks. Egg size was proportional to maternal size but not age. Seasonal trends in gonadosomatic indices, together with the changes in the macroscopic and microscopic condition of ovaries, demonstrated that spawning generally peaks during spring–early summer, but also occurs through until autumn and can even start in late winter at some sites. In Victoria, this species is a multiple spawner with asynchronous oocyte development and a protracted spawning season. Stocks generally contain both females that spawn once, and females that spawn repeatedly, within a spawning season. Implications for management for the control of feral carp stocks are discussed.
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Sivakumaran, K.P., Brown, P., Stoessel, D. et al. Maturation and Reproductive Biology of Female Wild Carp, Cyprinus carpio, in Victoria, Australia. Environmental Biology of Fishes 68, 321–332 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1027381304091