Sex Roles

, Volume 43, Issue 5–6, pp 323–340

Male Reference Group Identity Dependence: Support for Construct Validity

  • Jay C. Wade
  • Chris Brittan-Powell

DOI: 10.1023/A:1026695209399

Cite this article as:
Wade, J.C. & Brittan-Powell, C. Sex Roles (2000) 43: 323. doi:10.1023/A:1026695209399


This research study examined correlates of male identity statuses as postulated in Wade's (1998) theory of male reference group identity dependence. The Reference Group Identity Dependence Scale (RGIDS; Wade & Gelso, 1998) was correlated with measures of identity aspects (personal, social, and collective), belongingness, and a universal-diverse orientation. Based on the responses of 172 predominantly middle-class undergraduate college men (59% White, 15% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 13% African American, 4% Hispanic, and 9% other race/ethnicity, e.g., biracial, Arab American, Egyptian American), as predicted, the No Reference Group status negatively related to collective identity and social connectedness; the Reference Group Dependent status positively related to social identity and social connectedness; and the Reference Group Nondependent status positively related to personal identity, collective identity, social connectedness, and a universal-diverse orientation toward others.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jay C. Wade
    • 1
  • Chris Brittan-Powell
    • 2
  1. 1.Fordham UniversityUSA
  2. 2.University of MarylandUSA

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