Skip to main content

Reflection: issues related to improving professors' teaching and students' learning

Abstract

We describe here the outcomes of our research on the reflection of six professors considered exemplary in their teaching. For instance, we found that they all held and used considerable knowledge about learners, as groups and as individuals, and used this knowledge in reflecting on the impact of their teaching. We use this information to elaborate on the role of reflection in the construction of teaching knowledge. Lastly, we address how the model of reflection we developed helps us understand the factors influencing one's ability to effectively reflect on teaching.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Alexander, P.A., Schallert, D.L. & Hare, V.C. (1991). Coming to terms: How researchers in learning and literacy talk about learning. Review of Educational Research 61(3): 315–343.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bereiter, C. & Scardamalia, M. (1994). Surpassing Ourselves: An Inquiry into the Nature and Implications of Expertise. Chicago, IL: Open Court.

    Google Scholar 

  • Berliner, D.C. (1988). Implications of studies on expertise in pedagogy for teacher education and evaluation. New Directions for Teacher Assessment: Proceedings of the 1988 ETS Invitational Conference, pp. 39–68. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Services.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boud, D., Keogh, R. & Walker, D., eds (1985). Reflection: Turning Experience into Learning. London: Kogan Page.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carr, W. & Kemmis, S. (1986). Becoming Critical: Education, Knowledge and Action Research. London: Falmer Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chi, M.T.H., Glaser, R. & Farr, M.J. (1988). The Nature of Expertise. Hillside, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Connelly, F.M. & Clandinin, D.J. (1988). Teachers as Curriculum Planners: Narratives of Experience. Toronto: OISE Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Copeland, W.D., Birmingham, C., de la Cruz, E. & Lewin, D. (1993). The reflective practitioner in teaching: Toward a research agenda. Teaching and Teacher Education 9(4): 347–359.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dunkin, M. & Precians, R. (1992). Award winning university teachers' concepts of teaching. Higher Education 24: 483–502.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ericsson, K. & Smith, J. (1991). Prospects and limits of the empirical study of expertise: An introduction. In K. Ericsson & J. Smith, eds, Toward a General Theory of Expertise: Prospects and Limits, pp. 286–300. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fennema, E. & Franke, L. (1992). Teachers' knowledge and its impact. In D.A. Grouws, ed., Handbook of Research on Mathematics Teaching and Learning, pp. 147–164. New York: Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fox, D. (1983). Personal theories of teaching. Studies in Higher Education 8(2): 151–163.

    Google Scholar 

  • Grossman, P.L. (1990). The Making of a Teacher: Teacher Knowledge and Teacher Education. NY: Teachers College Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gutin, J.A. (1999). Review of The Hand: How its use shapes the brain, language and human culture. Discover Jan, 20(1): 108.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hativa, N. (1997). Teaching in a research university: Professors' conceptions, practices and disciplinary differences. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, Ill, March.

  • Ho, A. (1998). A conceptual change staff development program: Effects as perceived by participants. International Journal of Academic Development 3(1): 24–38.

    Google Scholar 

  • Houston, W.R. & Clift, R.T. (1990). The potential for research contribution to reflective practice. In R.T. Clift, W.R. Houston & M.C. Pugach, eds, Encouraging Reflective Practice in Education, pp. 208–222. New York: Teachers College Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kagan, D.M. (1992). Professional growth among preservice and beginning teachers. Review of Educational Research 62(2): 129–170.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kember, D. (1997). A reconceptualisation of the research into university academics' conceptions of teaching. Learning and Instruction 7(3): 255–275.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kompf, M. & Bond, W.R. (1995). Through the looking glass: Some criticisms of reflection. Paper presented to the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

  • Kremer-Hayon, L. (1988). Reflection and Professional Knowledge: A Conceptual Framework. ERIC ED 296971.

  • Lampert, N. (1984). Teaching about thinking and thinking about teaching. Journal of Curriculum Studies 16(1): 1–18.

    Google Scholar 

  • McAlpine, L. (1993). Learner narrative as an instructional device: Developing professional conversations. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching 4: 79–87.

    Google Scholar 

  • McAlpine L., Frew E. & Lucas, M. (1991). Mechanisms for helping becoming practitioners develop professional ways of knowing. In M. Baskett, V.J. Marsick, T.G. Pearson, D.R. Klevans & J. Delehanty, eds, Proceedings of the Continuing Education Preconference of the American Association of Adult and Continuing Education, pp. 67–73. University Park: Penn State University.

    Google Scholar 

  • McAlpine, L., Weston, C., Beauchamp, J., Wiseman, C. & Beauchamp, C. (1999a). Building a metacognitive model of reflection. Higher Education 37: 105–131.

    Google Scholar 

  • McAlpine, L., Weston, C., Beauchamp, C., Wiseman, C. & Beauchamp, J. (1999b). Monitoring student cues: Tracking students' behaviour in order to improve instruction. Canadian Journal of Higher Education XXIX(2): 113–149.

    Google Scholar 

  • McCormick, R. & James, M. (1989). Curriculum Evaluation in Schools, 2nd ed. London: Routledge

    Google Scholar 

  • Nelson, T.O. & Narens, L. (1990). Metamemory: A theoretical framework and new findings. The Psychology of Learning and Motivation 26: 125–141.

    Google Scholar 

  • Neufeld, J. & Grimmett, P.P. (1994). The authenticity for struggle. In P.P. Grimmett & J. Neufeld, eds, Teacher Development and the Struggle for Authenticity: Professional Growth and Restructuring in the Context of Change, pp. 205–232.

  • Polanyi, M. (1966). The Tacit Dimension. NY: Doubleday.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rahilly, T. (1997). Teacher knowledge in the university classroom: Inexperienced, experienced, and award-winning professors' critical incidents of teaching. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ramsden, P. (1992). Learning to Teach in Higher Education. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Saroyan, A, Amundsen, C. & Li, C. (1997). Incorporating theories of teacher growth and adult education in a faculty development program. To Improve the Academy 16: 93–115.

    Google Scholar 

  • Scardamalia, M. & Bereiter, C. (1986). Writing. In R. Dillon & R. Sternberg, eds, Cognition and Instruction, pp. 59–81. Orlando, Florida: Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schön, D.A. (1983). The Reflective Practitioner. New York, NY: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schön, D.A. (1987). Educating the Reflective Practitioner. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sherman, T.M., Armistead, L.P., Fowler, F., Barksdale, M.A. & Reif, G. (1987). The quest for excellence in university teaching. Journal of Higher Education 58(1): 66–84.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shulman, L.S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher 15(2): 4–14.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shulman, J. (1987). From veteran parent to novice teacher: A case study of a student teacher. Teaching and Teacher Education 3(1): 12–28.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stepich, D. (1991). From novice to expert: Implications for instructional design. Performance and Instruction 30(6): 13–17.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sternberg, R.J. & Horvath, J.A. (1995). A prototype view of expert teaching. Educational Researcher 24(6): 9–17.

    Google Scholar 

  • Van Manen, M. (1977). Linking ways of knowing with ways of being practical. Curriculum Inquiry 6(3): 205–228.

    Google Scholar 

  • Webster' Third New International Dictionary (1961). Editor in chief, P. Babcock Gore. Springfield, MA: G. & C. Merriam Co.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zeichner, K.M. (1994). Research on teacher thinking and different views of reflective practice in teaching and teacher education. In I. Carlgren, G. Handal & S. Vaage, eds, Teachers' Minds and Actions: Research on Teachers' Thinking and Practice. Bristol, PA: Falmer Press.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

McAlpine, L., Weston, C. Reflection: issues related to improving professors' teaching and students' learning. Instructional Science 28, 363–385 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026583208230

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026583208230

  • reflection
  • post-secondary
  • teacher knowledge
  • teacher thinking