The sex ratio of leopards, Panthera pardus, taken by trophyhunters in Tanzania is examined. We used sex specific molecularmarkers to analyze 77 samples collected from animals shot betweenthe years 1995–1998 and found that 28.6% were females, despitethe fact that only males are allowed on licenses and all skinswere tagged as males. The model used for quota setting assumesthat only males are shot, but the effect of this violation ofquotas is unknown. Off-take in Tanzania does not currently fillquotas, but when off-take approach maximum levels, compliancewith set quotas and regulations will be critical for sustainableharvest.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Anonymous (1996) Selous Conservation Programme. Price Waterhouse, Harare.
Bailey TN (1993) The African Leopard: Ecology and Behavior of a Solitary Felid. Columbia University Press, New York.
Caro TM (1999) Densities of mammals in partially protected areas: The Katavi ecosystem of western Tanzania. J. Appl. Ecol., 2, 205-217.
Caro TM, Pelkey N, Borner M, Severre ELM, Campbell KL, Huish SA, Kuwai JO, Farm BP, Woodworth BL (1998) The impact of tourist hunting on large mammals in Tanzania: an initial assessment. Afr. J. Ecol., 36, 321-346.
Child B (1996) The practice and principles of communitybased wildlife. management in Zimbabwe: the CAMPFIRE programme. Biodiv. Cons., 5, 369-398.
Creel S, Creel NM (1997) Lion density and population structure in the Selous Game Reserve: evaluation of hunting quotas and off-take. Afr. J. Ecol., 35, 83-93.
Lewis DM, Alpert P (1997) Trophy hunting and wildlife conservation in Zambia. Conserv. Biol., 11, 59-68.
Martin RB, De Meulenaer T (1988) Survey of the Status of the Leopard (Panthera pardus) in Sub-Saharan Africa. IUCN, Lausanne, Switzerland.
PAWM(1995) Tourist Hunting in Tanzania. Department of Wildlife, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Slattery JP, O'Brien SJ (1998) Patterns of Y and X chromosome DNA sequence divergence during the Felidae radiation. Genetics, 148, 1245-1255.
Spong G, Johansson M, Bjorklund M (2000) High genetic variation in leopards indicates large and long-term stable effective population size. Mol. Ecol., 9.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Spong, G., Hellborg, L. & Creel, S. Sex ratio of leopards taken in trophy hunting: genetic data from Tanzania. Conserv Genet 1, 169–171 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026543308136
- Panthera pardus
- sport hunting