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Water uptake by plant roots: an integration of views

Abstract

A COMPOSITE TRANSPORT MODEL is presented which explains the variability in the ability of roots to take up water and responses of water uptake to different factors. The model is based on detailed measurements of 'root hydraulics' both at the level of excised roots (root hydraulic conductivity, Lpr) and root cells (membrane level; cell Lp) using pressure probes and other techniques. The composite transport model integrates apoplastic and cellular components of radial water flow across the root cylinder. It explains why the hydraulic conductivity of roots changes in response to the nature (osmotic vs. hydraulic) and intensity of water flow. The model provides an explanation of the adaptation of plants to conditions of drought and other stresses by allowing for a `coarse regulation of water uptake' according to the demands from the shoot which is favorable to the plant. Coarse regulation is physical in nature, but strongly depends on root anatomy, e.g. on the existence of apoplastic barriers in the exo- and endodermis. Composite transport is based on the composite structure of roots. A `fine regulation' results from the activity of water channels (aquaporins) in root cell membranes which is assumed to be under metabolic and other control.

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Steudle, E. Water uptake by plant roots: an integration of views. Plant and Soil 226, 45–56 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026439226716

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  • apoplast
  • composite transport model
  • endodermis
  • exodermis
  • hydraulic conductivity
  • root
  • water channels
  • water flow