Skip to main content

Occurence and Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ankara Precipitation


Urban atmospheric environment contains many trace organic pollutants that are related to the incomplete fuel combustion in domestic heating, industrial plants and automobile traffic. Removal of these pollutants from the atmosphere takes place through wet and dry deposition as well as chemical transformations. In this study, concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wet deposition samples were determined at an urban site of Turkey. Wet and dry deposition samples were collected using Andersen Rain Sampler. The sampler was modified accordingly for the collection of organic pollutants. Collected samples were preconcentrated by using solid phase extraction (SPE) disks and consecutively analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the 13 compounds quantified in this study, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were found more frequently and at elevated concentrations (202, 271 and 260 ng L-1 mean concentrations, respectively).Concentrations of PAHs were found to be high in winter period.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. Baek, S. O., Field, R. A., Goldstone, M. E., Kirk, P. W. and Lester, J. N. and Perry, R.: 1991, ‘A review of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Sources, fate and behavior’, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 60, 279–300.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Carrera, G., Fernandez, P., Vilanova, R. and Grimalt, J. O.: 1998, ‘Analysis of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine compounds in atmospheric residues by solid-phase disk extraction’, J. Chromatogr. A 823, 189–196.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Gardner, B. and Hewitt, C. N.: 1993, ‘The design and application of a novel automated sampler for wet and dry deposition to water surfaces’, Sci. Total Environ. 135, 135–245.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Golomb, D., Ryan, D., Underhill, J., Wade, T. and Zemba, S.: 1997, ‘Atmospheric deposition of toxics onto Massachusetts bay-II. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons’, Atmosph. Environ. 31, 1361–1368.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Levsen, K., Behnert, S. and Winkeler, H. D.: 1991, ‘Organic compounds in precipitation’, Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 340, 665–671.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Ligocki, M. P., Leuenberger, C. and Pankow, J. B.: 1985, ‘Trace organic compounds in rain-II. Gas scavenging of neutral organic compounds’, Atmosph. Environ. 19, 1069–1617.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Manoli, E., Samara, C., Konstantinou, I. and Albanis, T.: 2000, ‘Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the bulk precipitation and surface waters of Northern Greece’, Chemosphere 41, 1845–1855.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. McVeety, B. D. and Hites, R. A.: 1988, ‘Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to water surfaces: a mass balance approach’, Atmosph. Environ. 22, 511–536.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Papageorgopoulou, A., Manoli, E., Touloumi, E. and Samara, C.: 1999, ‘Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the ambient air of Greek towns in relation to other atmospheric pollutants’, Chemosphere 39, 2183–2199.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Poster, D. L. and Baker, J. E.: 1996, ‘Influence of submicron particles on hydrophobic organic contaminants in precipitation. 1. Concentrations and distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in rainwater’, Environ. Sci. Technol. 30, 341–348.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to S. G. Tuncel.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Gaga, E.O., Tuncel, S.G. Occurence and Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ankara Precipitation. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution: Focus 3, 127–134 (2003).

Download citation

  • PAHs
  • solid phase extraction
  • urban atmosphere
  • wet deposition