Sex Roles

, Volume 49, Issue 9–10, pp 507–516 | Cite as

Students' Perceptions of Expressiveness: Age and Gender Effects on Teacher Evaluations

Abstract

In this study we investigated the relationship between college students' perceptions of professors' expressiveness and implicit age and gender stereotypes. Three hundred and fifty-two male and female students watched slides of an age- and gender-neutral stick figure and listened to a neutral voice presenting a lecture, and then evaluated it on teacher evaluation forms that indicated 1 of 4 different age and gender conditions (male, female, “old,” and “young”). Main and interaction effects indicated that students rated the “young” male professor higher than they did the “young” female, “old” male, and “old” female professors on speaking enthusiastically and using a meaningful voice tone during the class lecture regardless of the identical manner in which the material was presented. Implications of biased teacher-expressiveness items on student evaluations are discussed.

student evaluations teacher expressiveness students' stereotypes 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrami, P. C., & d'Appollonia, S. (1999). Current concerns are past concerns. American Psychologist, 54, 519–520.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Retrieved October 4, 2002, from http://WWW.apa.org/ethicsGoogle Scholar
  3. Amin, M. E. (1994). Gender as a discriminating factor in the evaluation of teaching. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 19, 135–143.Google Scholar
  4. Aries, E. (1996). Men and women in interaction: Reconsidering the differences. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Ashburn-Nardo, L., Voils, C. I., & Monteith, M. J. (2001). Implicit associations as the seeds of intergroup bias: How easily do they take root? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 789–799.Google Scholar
  6. Banaji, M. R., Hardin, C., & Rothman, A. J. (1993). Implicit stereotyping in person judgment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 272–281.Google Scholar
  7. Bargh, J. A. (1999). The cognitive monster: The case against the controllability of automatic stereotype effects. In S. Chaiken & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual process theories in social psychology (pp. 361–382). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  8. Bargh, J. A., Chen, M., & Burrows, L. (1996). The automaticity of social behavior: Direct effects of trait concept and stereotype activation on action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 230–244.Google Scholar
  9. Bargh, J. A., & Ferguson, M. J. (2000). Beyond behaviorism: On the automaticity of higher mental processes. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 925–945.Google Scholar
  10. Barnes, L. L., & Barnes, M. W. (1993). Academic discipline and generalizability of student evaluations of instruction. Research in Higher Education, 23, 135–149.Google Scholar
  11. Basow, S. A. (1990). Effects of teacher expressiveness: Mediated by teacher sex-typing? Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 599–602.Google Scholar
  12. Basow, S. A. (1995). Student evaluations of college professors: When gender matters. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 656–665.Google Scholar
  13. Basow, S. A. (1998). Student evaluations: The role of gender bias and teaching styles. In L. H. Collins, J. C. Chrisler, & K. Quina (Eds.), Arming Athena: Career strategies for women in academe (pp. 135–156). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Basow, S. A. (2000). Best and worst professors: Gender patterns in students' choices. Sex Roles, 34, 407–417.Google Scholar
  15. Basow, S., & Distenfeld, M. S. (1985). Teacher expressiveness: More important for male teachers than female teachers? Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 45–52.Google Scholar
  16. Basow, S. A., & Howe, K. G. (1987). Evaluations of college professors' sex-type, and sex, and students' sex. Psychological Reports, 60, 671–678.Google Scholar
  17. Basow, S. A., & Silberg, N. T. (1987). Student evaluations of college professors: Are female and male professors rated differently? Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 308–314.Google Scholar
  18. Bendya, M. E., Finucane, T., Kirby, L., & O'Donnell, J. P. (1996). Gender differences in public attitudes toward the Gulf War: A test of competing hypotheses. Social Science Journal, 33, 1–22.Google Scholar
  19. Bennett, S. K. (1982). Student perceptions of and expectations for male and female instructors: Evidence relating to the question of gender bias in teaching evaluations. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 170–179.Google Scholar
  20. Best, J. B., & Addison, W. E. (2000). A preliminary study of perceived warmth of professor and student evaluations. Teaching of Psychology, 27, 60–62.Google Scholar
  21. Bousfield, W. A. (1940). Students' ratings of qualities considered desirable in college professors. School and Society, 51, 253–256.Google Scholar
  22. Centra, J. A., & Gaubatz, N. B. (2000). Is there gender bias in student evaluations of teaching? Journal of Higher Education, 71, 17–33.Google Scholar
  23. Chabot, H. F. (2000). Predicting ageist and sexist attitudes and the conditions for their existence (Doctoral dissertation, University of New Hampshire). Dissertation Abstracts International, 60, 12-B. (UMI No. 9953418)Google Scholar
  24. Costa, P., Jr., Terracciano, A., & McCrae, R. R. (2001). Gender differences in personality traits across cultures: Robust and surprising findings. Journal of Personality and Cognition, 81, 322–331.Google Scholar
  25. Cravens, T. F. (1996, March). Students' perceptions of the characteristics of teaching excellence. Paper presented at the National Social Science Conference, Reno, NV.Google Scholar
  26. Danziger, P. R., & Welfel, E. R. (2000). Age, gender, and health bias in counselors: An empirical analysis. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 22, 135–149.Google Scholar
  27. d'Appolonia, S., & Abrami, P. C. (1997). Navigating student ratings of instruction. American Psychologist, 52, 1198–1208.Google Scholar
  28. Das, M., & Das, H. (2001). Business students' perceptions of best university professors: Does gender role matter? Sex Roles, 45, 665–676.Google Scholar
  29. Deal, L.V., & Oyer, H. J. (1991). Ratings of vocal pleasantness and the aging process. Folia Phoniatrica, 43(1), 44–48.Google Scholar
  30. Devine, P. G., & Monteith, M. J. (1999). Automaticity and control in stereotyping. In S. Chaiken & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual-process theories in social psychology (pp. 339–360). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  31. Dijksterhuis, A., & van Knippenberg, A. (1996). The knife that cuts both ways: Facilitated and inhibited access to traits as a result of stereotype activation. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 32, 271–288.Google Scholar
  32. Dunning, D., & Sherman, D. A. (1997). Stereotypes and tacit inference. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 459–471.Google Scholar
  33. Ekman, P. (1994). Strong evidence for universals in facial expressions: A reply to Russell's mistaken critique. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 268–287.Google Scholar
  34. England, E. M., & Manko, W. (1991, April). College student evaluations of stereotypic female subcategory members. Paper presented at the meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  35. Fazio, R. H., Roskos-Ewaldsen, D. R., & Powell, M. C. (1994). Attitudes, perception, and attention. In P. M. Niedenthal & S. Kitayama (Eds.), The heart's eye: Emotional influences in perception and attention (pp. 197–216). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  36. Fazio, R. H., Sanbonmatsu, D. M., Powell, M. C., & Kardes, F. R. (1986). On the automatic activation of attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 229–238.Google Scholar
  37. Feldman, K. A. (1986). The perceived instructional effectiveness of college teachers as related to their personality and attitudinal characteristics: A review and synthesis. Research in Higher Education, 24, 139–213.Google Scholar
  38. Freeman, H. (1994). Student evaluations of college instructors: Effects of type of course taught, instructor gender and gender role, and student gender. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 627–630.Google Scholar
  39. Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (1999). Gender, power dynamics, and social interaction. In M. M. Ferree & J. Lorder (Eds.), Revisioning gender: The gender lens (pp. 365–398). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  40. Greenwald, A. G. (1997). Validity concerns and usefulness of student ratings of instruction. American Psychologist, 52, 1182–1186.Google Scholar
  41. Greenwald, A. G., & Gillmore, G. M. (1997). Grading leniency is a removable contaminant of student ratings. American Psychologist, 52, 1209–1217.Google Scholar
  42. Guerrero, L. K., & Miller, T. (1998). Associations between nonverbal behaviors and initial impressions of instructor competence and course content in videotaped distance education courses. Communication Education, 47(1), 30–42.Google Scholar
  43. Helgeson, V. S. (1994). Prototypes and dimensions of masculinity and femininity. Sex Roles, 31, 653–682.Google Scholar
  44. Hewstone, M., Rubin, M., & Willis, H. (2002). Intergroup bias. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 575–604.Google Scholar
  45. Hopkins, N., & Moore, C. (2001). Categorizing the neighbors: Identity, distance, and stereotyping. Social Psychology Quarterly, 64, 239–252.Google Scholar
  46. Kalavar, J. M. (2001). Examining agesim: Do male and female college students differ? Educational Gerontology, 27,507–513.Google Scholar
  47. Kawakami, K., & Dovidio, J. F. (2001). The reliability of implicit stereotyping. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 212–225.Google Scholar
  48. Kawakami, K., Young, H., & Dovidio, J. F. (2002). Automatic stereotyping: Category, trait, and behavioral activations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 3–15.Google Scholar
  49. Kierstead, D., D'Agostino, P., & Dill, P. (1988). Sex role stereotyping of college professors: Bias in students' ratings of instructors. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 342–344.Google Scholar
  50. Kite, M. E. (2001). Changing times, changing gender roles: Who do we want women and men to be? In R. K. Unger (Ed.), Handbook of the psychology of women and gender (pp. 215–227). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  51. Lachman, S. J. (1996). Processes in perception: Psychological transformations of highly structured stimulus material. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 83, 411–418.Google Scholar
  52. LeBlanc, R. (1998, June/July). Good teaching: The top 10 requirements. The Teaching Professor, p. 1.Google Scholar
  53. Levin, W. C. (1988). Age stereotyping: College student evaluations. Research on Aging, 10(1), 134–148.Google Scholar
  54. Levy, B. R. (1996). Improving memory in old age through implicit self-stereotyping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 1092–1107.Google Scholar
  55. Levy, B. R. (2001). Eradication of ageism requires addressing the enemy within. Gerontologist, 41, 578–579.Google Scholar
  56. Levy, B. R., & Banaji, M. R. (2002). Implicit ageism. In T. D. Nelson (Ed.), Ageism: Stereotyping and prejudice against older persons (pp. 49–75). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  57. Macrae, C. N., Bodenhausen, G. V., Milne, A. B., Thorn, T. M. J., & Castelli, L. (1997). On the activation of social stereotypes: The moderating role of processing objectives. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 33, 471–489.Google Scholar
  58. Marsh, H. W., & Roche, L. A. (1997). Making students' evaluations of teaching effectiveness effective: The critical issues of validity, bias, and utility. American Psychologist, 52, 1187–1197.Google Scholar
  59. Martin, E. (1984). Power and authority in the classroom: Sexist stereotypes in teaching evaluations. Signs, 9, 482–492.Google Scholar
  60. McKeachie, W. J. (1997). Student ratings: The validity of use. American Psychologist, 52, 1218–1225.Google Scholar
  61. Messner, M. A. (2000). White guy habitus in the classroom: Challenging the reproduction of privilege. Men and Masculinities, 2, 457–469.Google Scholar
  62. Mulac, A., & Lundell, T. L. (1982). An empirical test of the gender-linked language effect in a public speaking setting. Language and Speech, 25, 243–256.Google Scholar
  63. Nosek, B. A., Banaji, M., & Greenwald, A. G. (2002). Harvesting implicit group attitudes and beliefs from a demonstration website. Group Dynamics, 6(1), 101–115.Google Scholar
  64. Ogden, D., Chapman, A. D., & Doak, L. (1994, November). Characteristics of good/effective teachers: Gender differences in student descriptors. Paper presented at the meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association, Nashville, TN.Google Scholar
  65. Perdue, C. W., & Gurtman, M. B. (1990). Evidence for the automaticity of ageism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 26, 199–216.Google Scholar
  66. Peterson, C. C. (1980). Are young people biased against older teachers? Journal of Genetic Psychology, 136, 309–310.Google Scholar
  67. Pittinsky, T. L., Shih, M., & Ambady, N. (2000). Will a category cue you? Category cues, positive stereotypes, and reviewer recall for applicants. Social Psychology of Education, 4(1), 53–65.Google Scholar
  68. Radmacher, S. A., & Martin, D. J. (2001). Identifying significant predictors of student evaluations of faculty through hierarchical regression analysis. Journal of Psychology, 135, 259–268.Google Scholar
  69. Scherer, K. R. (1992). On social representations of emotional experience: Stereotypes, prototypes, or archetypes? In M. von Cranach, W. Doise, & G. Mugny (Eds.), Social representations and the social bases of knowledge [Swiss Monographs in Psychology] (Vol. 1, pp. 30–36). Lewiston, NY: Hogrefe & Huber.Google Scholar
  70. Swim, J. K., & Cohen, L. L. (1997). Overt, covert, and subtle sexism: A comparison between the attitudes toward women and modern sexism scales. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 103–118.Google Scholar
  71. Tatro, C. N. (1995). Gender effects on student ratings of faculty. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 28, 169–173.Google Scholar
  72. Unger, R. K. (1979). Sexism in teacher evaluation: The comparability of real life to laboratory analogs. Academic Psychology Bulletin, 1(2), 163–170.Google Scholar
  73. Unger, R. K., & Saundra. (1993). Sexism: An integrated perspective. In F. L. Denmark & M. Paludi (Eds.), Psychology of women: A handbook of issues and theories (pp. 141–188). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  74. Upham, D. (2001, November). Celebrating teachers. Paper presented at the meeting of Kappa Delta Pi, Orlando, FL.Google Scholar
  75. Williams, W. M., & Ceci, S. J. (1997). "How'm I doing?" Problems with student rating of instructors and courses. Change, 29(5), 12–23.Google Scholar
  76. Wilson, R. (1998, January 16). New research casts doubt on value of student evaluations of professors. Chronicle of Higher Education, 44, 12–14.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyWeber State UniversityOgden

Personalised recommendations