Computers and the Humanities

, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 389–405

C-rater: Automated Scoring of Short-Answer Questions

  • Claudia Leacock
  • Martin Chodorow

DOI: 10.1023/A:1025779619903

Cite this article as:
Leacock, C. & Chodorow, M. Computers and the Humanities (2003) 37: 389. doi:10.1023/A:1025779619903


C-rater is an automated scoringengine that has been developed to scoreresponses to content-based short answerquestions. It is not simply a stringmatching program – instead it uses predicateargument structure, pronominal reference,morphological analysis and synonyms to assignfull or partial credit to a short answerquestion. C-rater has been used in two studies:National Assessment for Educational Progress(NAEP) and a statewide assessment in Indiana.In both studies, c-rater agreed with humangraders about 84% of the time.

automated scoring content-based scoring short answer scoring 

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claudia Leacock
    • 1
  • Martin Chodorow
    • 2
  1. 1.Educational Testing ServicePrincetonUSA
  2. 2.Hunter CollegeCity University of New YorkUSA

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