This study evaluated the effects of using response cards during whole-group math instruction in a fourth-grade classroom, using an ABA research design. During both A and B conditions the classroom teacher conducted her math lessons as planned. However during the A conditions, hand-raising (HR) was in effect. That is, when the teacher asked a question she instructed the students to raise their hands and after each question she called on one student whose hand was raised. During the B condition, response cards (RC) were in effect. Whenever she asked a question, the teacher instructed the entire class to write their answers on individual response cards. After each question, the teacher instructed the entire class to hold up their RC. Data were collected on five students who represented the class range in general level of participation, academic skills, and on-task behavior. Results indicated that student participation, specifically the number of student-initiated opportunities to respond and the number of student responses were higher when using RC than when HR was in effect. Students scored higher on the weekly math quiz after the RC condition than after the HR conditions. The percentage of intervals that students were on-task also was higher when RC were used.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Alberto, P. A., & Troutman, A. C. (1999). Applied behavior analysis for teachers (4 ed.). New York: Macmillan.
Armendariz, F., & Umbreit, J. (1999). Using active responding to reduce disruptive behavior in a general education classroom. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1, 152-158.
Barlow, D. H. & Herson, M. (1984). Single case experimental designs: Strategies for studying behavior change (2 ed.). New York: Pergamon Press.
Billingsley, F., White, O. R., & Munson, R. (1980). Procedural reliability: A rationale and an example. Behavioral Assessment, 2, 229-241.
Birnbrauer, J. S. (1981). External validity and experimental investigation of individual behavior. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 1, 117-132.
Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (Eds.) (1999). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
Cavanaugh, R. A., & Heward, W. L. (1996). Effects of response cards during lesson closure on the academic performance of secondary students in an earth science course. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29, 403-406.
Gardner, R. I., Heward, W. L., & Grossi, T. A. (1994). Effects of response cards on student participation and academic achievement: A systematic replication with inner-city students during whole-class science instruction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 63-71.
Godfrey, S. A., Grisham-Brown, J., Hemmeter, M. L., & Schuster, J. W. (in press). The effects of three techniques on student participation with preschool children with attending problems. Education and Treatment of Children.
Heward, W. L. (2000). Exceptional children: An introduction to special education (6th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Heward, W. L., Gardner, R. I., Cavanaugh, R. A., Courson, F. H., Grossi, T. A., & Barbetta, P. M. (1996). Everyone participates in this class: Using response cards to increase active student responses. Teaching Exceptional Children, 28(2), 4-11.
Kazdin, A. E. (1982). Single-case research designs: Methods for clinical and applied settings. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kerr, M. M., & Nelson, C. M. (2002). Strategies for handling behavior problems in the classroom. (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Ketterer, A., Schuster, J. W., Collins, B. C., & Morse, T. E. (2001). The effects of response cards on active participation and social behavior of students with functional mental disabilities. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Narayan, J. S., Heward, W. L., Gardner, R. I., Courson, F. H., & Omness, C. K. (1990). Using response cards to increase student participation in an elementary classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 483-490.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics. Available online: http://standards.nctm.org/index.htm. Accessed: June 15, 2001.
Reynolds, D., & Muijs, D. (1999). The effective teaching of mathematics: A review of research. School Leadership & Management. 19(3), 273-289.
Salvia, J., & Ysseldyke, J. E. (2001). Assessment. New York: Houghton Mifflin College.
Sardo-Brown, D., & Welsh, L. (1995). Practical strategies for facilitating classroom teachers' involvement in action research. Education, 115, 553-560.
Shin, J. (2000). Predicting classroom achievement from active responding on a computer-based group-ware system. Remedial & Special Education, 21(1), 53-61.
Tawney, J. W., & Gast, D. L. (1985). Single subject research in special education. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
Wolery, M., Bailey, D. B., & Sugai, G. M. (1988). Effective teaching: Principles and procedures of applied behavior analysis with exceptional students: Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
About this article
Cite this article
Christle, C.A., Schuster, J.W. The Effects of Using Response Cards on Student Participation, Academic Achievement, and On-Task Behavior During Whole-Class, Math Instruction. Journal of Behavioral Education 12, 147–165 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025577410113
- response cards
- active responding
- active participation
- effective instruction
- applied research
- single subject