Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 415–429 | Cite as

Negative Cognitive Biases Predict Subsequent Depression

  • Stephanie S. Rude
  • Carmen R. Valdez
  • Susan Odom
  • Arshia Ebrahimi
Article

Abstract

We administered the Scrambled Sentences Test (SST; R. M. Wenzlaff, 1993), a measure of cognitive processing bias, to a large sample of college students at Time 1. Participants completed a portion of the SST under cognitive load (holding a six-digit number in memory) and a portion without load. At Time 2, 18–28 months later, we conducted diagnostic interviews with a subset of the original participants. As expected, SST scores (proportion of negative solutions) in the cognitive load condition predicted diagnoses of major depression during an 18–28 month follow-up period, even after controlling for self-reported Time 1 depression symptoms and worst lifetime symptoms. No significant prediction of depression was obtained using SST scores from the no-load portion of the task.

depression depression vulnerability cognition information-processing prospective study 

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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephanie S. Rude
    • 1
  • Carmen R. Valdez
    • 1
  • Susan Odom
    • 1
  • Arshia Ebrahimi
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Texas at AustinAustin

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