Skip to main content

Diversity in Case Management Modalities: The Summit Model


Though ubiquitous in community mental health agencies, case management suffers from a lack of consensus regarding its definition, essential components, and appropriate application. Meaningful comparisons of various case management models await such a consensus. Global assessments of case management must be replaced by empirical studies of specific interventions with respect to the needs of specific populations. The authors describe a highly differentiated and prescriptive system of case management involving the application of more than one model of service delivery. Such a diversified and targeted system offers an opportunity to study the technology of case management in a more meaningful manner.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  • Bachrach, L.L. (1995). Personal communication.

  • Bachrach, L.L. (1993). Continuity of Care and Approaches to Case Management for Long-term Mentally Ill Patients. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 44: 465-468.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bachrach, L.L. (1992). Case Management Revisited. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 43: 209-210.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bachrach, L.L. (1988). On Exporting and Importing Model Programs, Hospital and Community Psychiatry 39, 1257-8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bachrach, L.L. (1981). Continuity of Care for Chronic Mental Patients: A Conceptual Analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry 138:1449-1456.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dietzen, L.L. and Bond, G.R. (1993). Relationship Between Case Manager Contact and Outcome for Frequently Hospitalized Psychiatric Clients. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 44: 839-843.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dincin, J., Wasmer, D., Witheridge, T.F., Sobeck, L. Cook, J. & Razzano, L. (1993). Impact of Assertive Community Treatment on the Use of State Hospital Bed-Days. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 44: 833-838.

    Google Scholar 

  • Durell, J., Lechtenberg, B., Corse, S., and Frances, R.J. (1993). Intensive Case Management of Persons With Chronic Mental Illness Who Abuse Substances. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 44: 415-428.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hornstra, R.K., Bruce-Wolfe, V., Sagduyu, K. and Riffle, D.W. (1993). The Effect of Intensive Case Management on Hospitalization of Patients With Schizophrenia. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 44: 844-847.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kanter, J.S. (1989). Clinical case management: Definition, principles, components. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 40:361-368.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lachance, K.R., Santos, A.B. (1995). Modifying the PACT Model: Preserving Critical Elements, Psychiatric Services 46, 601-3.

    Google Scholar 

  • Quinlivan R, Hough R., Crowell A., et al (1995). Service Utilization and Costs of Care for Severely Mentally Ill Clients in an Intensive Case Management Program. Psychiatric Services 46: 365-371.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sands, R.G. and Cnaan, R.A. (1994). Two Modes of Case Management: Assessing Their Impact. Community Mental Health Journal 30: 441-457.

    Google Scholar 

  • Solomon, P.S. (1992). The Efficacy of Case Management Services for Severely Mentally Disabled Clients. Community Mental Health Journal 28: 163-180.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stein, L.I. and Test, M.A. (1980). Alternative to Mental Hospital Treatment, I: Conceptual Model, Treatment Program, and Clinical Evaluation. Archives of General Psychiatry 37: 392-397.

    Google Scholar 

  • Task Force on Homelessness and Severe Mental Illness (1992). Outcasts on Main Street. Washington, DC: Interagency Council on the Homeless.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Peterson, G.A., Drone, I.D. & Munetz, M.R. Diversity in Case Management Modalities: The Summit Model. Community Ment Health J 33, 245–250 (1997).

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Public Health
  • Mental Health
  • Empirical Study
  • Health Psychology
  • Service Delivery