Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 33, Issue 4, pp 403–415

Autism Families with a High Incidence of Alcoholism

  • Judith H. Miles
  • T. Nicole Takahashi
  • Andrew Haber
  • Laura Hadden
Article

Abstract

To determine the significance of neuropsychiatric disorders in autism families, we analyzed 167 pedigrees ascertained through an autistic child; 39% had alcoholism in patterns consistent with transmission of a genetic trait. Children from high alcoholism families were more likely to have the onset of their autistic behavior occur with a loss of language (52.5% vs. 35.8%, p = 0.04). This occurred primarily in families where the mother was alcoholic (80% vs. 40%, p = 0.05), suggesting an association between maternal alcoholism and regressive onset autism. Children from high alcoholism families were less likely to be macrocephalic (14.7% vs. 40.6%, p = 0.0006). Children from high alcohol and low alcohol families did not differ in dysmorphology status, IQ, sex ratio or sib recurrence risk.

Autism alcoholism genetics 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Aase, J. M. (1990). Diagnostic Dysmorphology. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Abramson, R. K., Wright, H. H., Cuccaro, M. L., Lawrence, L. G., Babb, S., Pencarinha, D., Marsteller, F., & Harris, E. C. (1992). Biological liability in families with autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 370–371.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, G. M., Freedman, D. X., Cohen, D. J., Volkmar, F. R., Hoder, E. L., McPhedran, P., Minderaa, R. B., Hansen, C. R., & Young, J. G. (1987). Whole blood serotonin in autistic and normal subjects. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 28, 885–900.Google Scholar
  4. Andreasen, N. C., Rice, J., Endicott, J., Reich, T., & Coryell, W. (1986). The family history approach to diagnosis. How useful is it? Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 421–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Aronson, M., Hagberg, B., & Gillberg, C. (1997). Attention deficits and autistic spectrum problems in children exposed to alcohol during gestation: A follow-up study. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 39, 583–587.Google Scholar
  6. Awad, G. A. (1996). The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in young children with pervasive developmental disorders: Some clinical observations. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 41, 361–366.Google Scholar
  7. Babor, T. F., Hofmann, M., DelBoca, F. K., Hesselbrock, V., Meyer, R. E., Dolinsky, Z. S., & Rounsaville, B. (1992). Types of alcoholics, I. Evidence for an empirically derived typology based on indicators of vulnerability and severity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 599–608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bailey, A., Le Couteur, A., Gottesman, I., Bolton, P., Simonoff, E., Yuzda, E., & Rutter, M. (1995). Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: Evidence from a British twin study. Psychological Medicine, 25, 63–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Balkovetz, D. F., Tiruppathi, C., Leibach, F. H., Mahesh, V. B., & Ganapathy, V. (1989). Evidence for an imipramine-sensitive serotonin transporter in human placental brush-border membranes. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 264, 2195–2198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Barnes, N. M., & Sharp, T. (1999). A review of central 5-HT receptors and their function. Neuropharmacology, 38, 1083–1152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bierut, L. J., Dinwiddie, S. H., Begleiter, H., Crowe, R. R., Hesselbrock, V., Nurnberger, J. I., Jr., Porjesz, B., Schuckit, M. A., & Reich, T. (1998). Familial transmission of substance dependence: Alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and habitual smoking: A report from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 982–988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bloom, F. E., & Morales, M. (1998). The central 5-HT3 receptor in CNS disorders. Neurochemical Research, 23, 653–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bohman, M., Sigvardsson, S., & Cloninger, C. R. (1981). Maternal inheritance of alcohol abuse. Cross-fostering analysis of adopted women. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 965–969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bolton, P., Macdonald, H., Pickles, A., Rios, P., Goode, S., Crowson, M., Bailey, A., & Rutter, M. (1994). A case-control family history study of autism. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 35, 877–900.Google Scholar
  15. Bolton, P. F., Pickles, A., Murphy, M., & Rutter, M. (1998). Autism, affective and other psychiatric disorders: Patterns of familial aggregation. Psychological Medicine, 28, 385–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bolton, P. F., Roobol, M., Allsopp, L., & Pickles, A. (2001). Association between idiopathic infantile macrocephaly and autism spectrum disorders. Lancet, 358, 726–727.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown, T. G., Seraganian, P., & Tremblay, J. (1994). Alcoholics also dependent on cocaine in treatment: Do they differ from “pure” alcoholics? Addictive Behaviors, 19, 105–112.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bucholz, K. K., Helzer, J. E., Shayka, J. J., & Lewis, C. E. (1994). Comparison of alcohol dependence in subjects from clinical, community, and family studies. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 18, 1091–1099.Google Scholar
  19. Bucholz, K. K., Hesselbrock, V. M., Shayka, J. J., Nurnberger, J. I., Jr., Schuckit, M. A., Schmidt, I., & Reich, T. (1995). Reliability of individual diagnostic criterion items for psychoactive substance dependence and the impact on diagnosis. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 56, 500–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bucholz, K. K., Marion, S. L., Shayka, J. J., Marcus, S. C., & Robins, L. N. (1996). A short computer interview for obtaining psychiatric diagnoses. Psychiatric Services, 47, 293–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bukstein, O. G., Brent, D. A., & Kaminer, Y. (1989). Comorbidity of substance abuse and other psychiatric disorders in adolescents. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1131–1141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cloninger, C. R., Reich, T., & Wetzel, R. (1979). Alcoholism and affective disorders: Familial associations and genetic models. In Alcoholism and Affective Disorders: Clinical, Genetic and Biochemical Studies, eds. Goodwin, D. W. & Erickson, C. K., pp. 57–86. SP Medical & Scientific Books, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Cook, E. H., & Leventhal, B. L. (1996). The serotonin system in autism. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 8, 348–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cook, E. H., Jr., Arora, R. C., Anderson, G. M., Berry-Kravis, E. M., Yan, S. Y., Yeoh, H. C., Sklena, P. J., Charak, D. A., & Leventhal, B. L. (1993). Platelet serotonin studies in hyperserotonemic relatives of children with autistic disorder. Life Sciences, 52, 2005–2015.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cook, E. H., Jr., Rowlett, R., Jaselskis, C., & Leventhal, B. L. (1992). Fluoxetine treatment of children and adults with autistic disorder and mental retardation. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 739–745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Davidovitch, M., Patterson, B., & Gartside, P. (1996). Head circumference measurements in children with autism. Journal of Child Neurology, 11, 389–393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Davies, N. J., Sham, P. C., Gilvarry, C., Jones, P. B., & Murray, R. M. (1997). Comparison of the family history with the family study method: Report from the Camberwell Collaborative Psychosis Study. American Journal of Human Genetics, 74, 12–17.Google Scholar
  28. Dawson, D. A., & Grant, B. F. (1998). Family history of alcoholism and gender: Their combined effects on DSM-IV alcohol dependence and major depression. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 59, 97–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. DeLong, G. R. (1999). Autism: New data suggest a new hypothesis. Neurology, 52, 911–916.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. DeLong, G. R., & Dwyer, J. T. (1988). Correlation of family history with specific autistic subgroups: Asperger's syndrome and bipolar affective disease. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 18, 593–600.Google Scholar
  31. Di Chiara, G., & Imperato, A. (1988). Drugs abused by humans preferentially increase synaptic dopamine concentrations in the mesolimbic system of freely moving rats. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 85, 5274–5278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Du, X., & Iacovitti, L. (1995). Synergy between growth factors and transmitters required for catecholamine differentiation in brain neurons. Journal of Neuroscience, 15, 5420–5427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Eaton, W. W., Kramer, M., Anthony, J. C., & Dryman, A. (1989). The incidence of specific DIS/DSM-III mental disorders: Data from the NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area program. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 79, 163–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Endicott, J., & Spitzer, R. L. (1978). A diagnostic interview: The schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 837–844.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Enoch, M. A., & Goldman, D. (2001). The genetics of alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Current Psychiatry Reports, 3, 144–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fombonne, E., Roge, B., Claverie, J., Courty, S., & Fremolle, J. (1999). Microcephaly and macrocephaly in autism. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 29, 113–119.Google Scholar
  37. Foroud, T., Bucholz, K. K., Edenberg, H. J., Goate, A., Neuman, R. J., Porjesz, B., Koller, D. L., Rice, J., Reich, T., Bierut, L. J., Cloninger, C. R., Nurnberger, J. I., Jr., Li, T. K., Conneally, P. M., Tischfield, J. A., Crowe, R., Hesselbrock, V., Schuckit, M., & Begleiter, H. (1998). Linkage of an alcoholism-related severity phenotype to chromosome 16. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 22, 2035–2042.Google Scholar
  38. George, D. T., Rawlings, R., Eckardt, M. J., Phillips, M. J., Shoaf, S. E., & Linnoila, M. (1999). Buspirone treatment of alcoholism: Age of onset, and cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid and homovanillic acid concentrations, but not medication treatment, predict return to drinking. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 23, 272–278.Google Scholar
  39. Gordon, C. T., State, R. C., Nelson, J. E., Hamburger, S. D., & Rapoport, J. L. (1993). A double-blind comparison of clomipramine, desipramine, and placebo in the treatment of autistic disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 441–447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Grant, B. F. (1997). Prevalence and correlates of alcohol use and DSM-IV alcohol dependence in the United States: Results of the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 58, 464–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Greenberg, D. A., Hodge, S. E., Sowinski, J., & Nicoll, D. (2001). Excess of twins among affected sibling pairs with autism: Implications for the etiology of autism. American Journal of Human Genetics, 69, 1062–1067.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Gurling, H. M., Murray, R. M., & Clifford, C. A. (1981). Investigations into the genetics of alcohol dependence and into its effects on brain function. Progress in Clinical and Biological Research, 69 Pt C, 77–87.Google Scholar
  43. Hall, J. G., Froster-Iskenius U. G., & Allanson, J. E. (1989). Handbook of Normal Physical Measurements. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  44. Harris, S. R., MacKay, L. L., & Osborn, J. A. (1995). Autistic behaviors in offspring of mothers abusing alcohol and other drugs: A series of case reports. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 19, 660–665.Google Scholar
  45. Heinz, A., Mann, K., Weinberger, D. R., & Goldman, D. (2001). Serotonergic dysfunction, negative mood states, and response to alcohol. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 25, 487–495.Google Scholar
  46. Hemby, S. E., Co, C., Koves, T. R., Smith, J. E., & Dworkin, S. I. (1997). Differences in extracellular dopamine concentrations in the nucleus accumbens during response-dependent and responseindependent cocaine administration in the rat. Psychopharmacology, 133, 7–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hill, S. Y. (1993). Etiology. In Annual Review of Addictions Research and Treatment, eds. Langenbucher, J. W., McCrady, B. S., Frankenstein, W., & Nathan, P. E., pp. 127–148. Pergamon Press, Inc., Tarrytown, NY.Google Scholar
  48. Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). Four factor index of social status. New Haven, CT: Department of Sociology, Yale University.Google Scholar
  49. Johnson, B. A., & Ait-Daoud, N. (2000). Neuropharmacological treatments for alcoholism: scientific basis and clinical findings. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 149, 327–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jones, K. L. (1997). Smith's Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation, 5 ed. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  51. Kendler, K. S., Heath, A. C., Neale, M. C., Kessler, R. C., & Eaves, L. J. (1993). Alcoholism and major depression in women. A twin study of the causes of comorbidity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 690–698.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kessler, R. C., McGonagle, K. A., Zhao, S., Nelson, C. B., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., Wittchen, H. U., & Kendler, K. S. (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 8–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Koob, G. F. (1992). Neural mechanisms of drug reinforcement. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 654, 171–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kurita, H. (1985). Infantile autism with speech loss before the age of thirty months. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24, 191–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Labuda, D., Krajinovic, M., Sabbagh, A., Infante-Rivard, D., & Sinnett, D. (2002). Parental genotypes in the risk of a complex disease. American Journal of Human Genetics, 71, 193–197.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Lainhart, J. E., Piven, J., Wzorek, M., Landa, R., Santangelo, S. L., Coon, H., & Folstein, S. E. (1997). Macrocephaly in children and adults with autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 282–290.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Lainhart, J. D., Ozonoff, S., Coon, H., Krasny, L., & McMahon, W. (2002). Autism, regression and the broader autism phenotype. American Journal of Medical Genetics, in press.Google Scholar
  58. Lauder, J. M. (1988). Neurotransmitters as morphogens. Progress in Brain Research, 73, 365–387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Levitt, P., Harvey, J. A., Friedman, E., Simansky, K., & Murphy, E. H. (1997). New evidence for neurotransmitter influences on brain development. Trends in Neurosciences, 20, 269–274.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Litt, M. D., Babor, T. F., DelBoca, F. K., Kadden, R. M., & Cooney, N. L. (1992). Types of alcoholics, II. Application of an empirically derived typology to treatment matching. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 609–614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Liu, J., Nyholt, D. R., Magnussen, P., Parano, E., Pavone, P., Geschwind, D., Lord, C., Iversen, P., Hoh, J., Ott, J., & Gilliam, T. C. (2001). Agenomewide screen for autism susceptibility loci. American Journal of Human Genetics, 69, 327–340.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lobascher, M. E., Kingerlee, P. E., & Gubbay, S. S. (1970). Childhood autism: an investigation of aetiological factors in twentyfive cases. British Journal of Psychiatry, 117, 525–529.Google Scholar
  63. Lord, C., Rutter, M., & DiLavore, P. C. (1998). Manual for the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule.Google Scholar
  64. Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Le Couteur, A. (1994). Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 24, 659–685.Google Scholar
  65. Lovinger, D. M. (1991). Inhibition of 5-HT3 receptor-mediated ion current by divalent metal cations in NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells. Journal of Neurophysiology, 66, 1329–1337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Lovinger, D. M., Sung, K. W., & Zhou, Q. (2000). Ethanol and trichloroethanol alter gating of 5-HT3 receptor-channels in NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells. Neuropharmacology, 39, 561–570.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. McBride, P. A., Anderson, G. M., Hertzig, M. E., Snow, M. E., Thompson, S. M., Khait, V. D., Shapiro, T., & Cohen, D. J. (1998). Effects of diagnosis, race, and puberty on platelet serotonin levels in autism and mental retardation. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 767–776.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. McBride, P. A., Anderson, G. M., & Mann, J. J. (1990). Serotonin in Autism. In Serotonin in Major Psychiatric Disorders, eds. Coccaro, E. F., & Murphy, D. L., pp. 49–68. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  69. McDougle, C. J., Brodkin, E. S., Naylor, S. T., Carlson, D. C., Cohen, D. J., & Price, L. H. (1998). Sertraline in adults with pervasive developmental disorders: A prospective open-label investigation. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 18, 62–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. McDougle, C. J., Kresch, L. E., & Posey, D. J. (2000). Repetitive thoughts and behavior in pervasive developmental disorders: treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 30, 427–435.Google Scholar
  71. McGue, M., Iacono, W. G., Legrand, L. N., & Elkins, I. (2001). Origins and consequences of age at first drink. II. Familial risk and heritability. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 25, 1166–1173.Google Scholar
  72. Merikangas, K. R., & Gelernter, C. S. (1990). Comorbidity for alcoholism and depression. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 13, 613–632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Miles, J. H., Hadden, L., Takahashi, T. N., & Hillman, R. E. (2000). Head circumference is an independent clinical finding associated with autism. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 95, 339–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Miles, J. H., & Hillman, R. E. (2000). Value of a clinical morphology examination in autism. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 91, 245–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Miles, J. H., Takahashi, T. N., Jones, C., & Hillman, R. E. (1999). Families concordant for autism and alcoholism. American Journal of Human Genetics, 65, A335.Google Scholar
  76. Miles, J. H., Takahashi, T. N., Sahota, P. K., Jones, C. E., & Hillman, R. E. (2001). Essential vs. complex autism: Definition of fundamental prognostic subtypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 69, 193.Google Scholar
  77. Murphy, M., Bolton, P. F., Pickles, A., Fombonne, E., Piven, J., & Rutter, M. (2000). Personality traits of the relatives of autistic probands. Psychological Medicine, 30, 1411–1424.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Nanson, J. L. (1992). Autism in fetal alcohol syndrome: a report of six cases. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 16, 558–565.Google Scholar
  79. Nurnberger, J. I., Jr., Foroud, T., Flury, L., Su, J., Meyer, E. T., Hu, K., Crowe, R., Edenberg, H., Goate, A., Bierut, L., Reich, T., Schuckit, M., & Reich, W. (2001). Evidence for a locus on chromosome 1 that influences vulnerability to alcoholism and affective disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 718–724.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Orvaschel, H., Thompson, W. D., Belanger, A., Prusoff, B. A., & Kidd, K. K. (1982). Comparison of the family history method to direct interview. Factors affecting the diagnosis of depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 4, 49–59.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Pettinati, H. M., Volpicelli, J. R., Kranzler, H. R., Luck, G., Rukstalis, M. R., & Cnaan, A. (2000). Sertraline treatment for alcohol dependence: interactive effects of medication and alcoholic subtype. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 24, 1041–1049.Google Scholar
  82. Pickens, R. W., & Svikis, D. S. (1988). The twin method in the study of vulnerability to drug abuse. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph, 89, 41–51.Google Scholar
  83. Piven, J., Chase, G. A., Landa, R., Wzorek, M., Gayle, J., Cloud, D., & Folstein, S. (1991). Psychiatric disorders in the parents of autistic individuals. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 471–478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Piven, J., & Palmer, P. (1999). Psychiatric disorder and the broad autism phenotype: Evidence from a family study of multipleincidence autism families. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 557–563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Posey, D. I., Litwiller, M., Koburn, A., & McDougle, C. J. (1999). Paroxetine in autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 111–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Prescott, C. A., & Kendler, K. S. (2000). Influence of ascertainment strategy on finding sex differences in genetic estimates from twin studies of alcoholism. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 96, 754–761.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Ramamoorthy, S., Leibach, F. H., Mahesh, V. B., & Ganapathy, V. (1992). Active transport of dopamine in human placental brushborder membrane vesicles. American Journal of Physiology, 262, C1189-C1196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Reich, T., Edenberg, H. J., Goate, A., Williams, J. T., Rice, J. P., Van Eerdewegh, P., Foroud, T., Hesselbrock, V., Schuckit, M. A., Bucholz, K., Porjesz, B., Li, T. K., Conneally, P. M., Nurnberger, J. I., Jr., Tischfield, J. A., Crowe, R. R., Cloninger, C. R., Wu, W., Shears, S., Carr, K., Crose, C., Willig, C., & Begleiter, H. (1998). Genome-wide search for genes affecting the risk for alcohol dependence. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 81, 207–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Rice, J. P., Reich, T., Bucholz, K. K., Neuman, R. J., Fishman, R., Rochberg, N., Hesselbrock, V. M., Nurnberger, J. I., Jr., Schuckit, M. A., & Begleiter, H. (1995). Comparison of direct interview and family history diagnoses of alcohol dependence. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 19, 1018–1023.Google Scholar
  90. Risch, N., Spiker, D., Lotspeich, L., Nouri, N., Hinds, D., Hallmayer, J., Kalaydjieva, L., McCague, P., Dimiceli, S., Pitts, T., Nguyen, L., Yang, J., Harper, C., Thorpe, D., Vermeer, S., Young, H., Hebert, J., Lin, A., Ferguson, J., Chiotti, C., Wiese-Slater, S., Rogers, T., Salmon, B., Nicholas, P., & Myers, R. M. (1999). A genomic screen of autism: Evidence for a multilocus etiology. American Journal of Human Genetics, 65, 493–507.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Robins, L. N., Helzer, J. E., Weissman, M. M., Orvaschel, H., Gruenberg, E., Burke, J. D., Jr., & Regier, D. A. (1984). Lifetime prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders in three sites. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 949–958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Robinson, P. D., Schutz, C. K., Macciardi, F., White, B. N., & Holden, J. J. (2001). Genetically determined low maternal serum dopamine beta-hydroxylase levels and the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 100, 30–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Roid, G. H. (1997). Leiter international performance scale-revised: Examiners manual. Stoelting, Wood Dale, IL.Google Scholar
  94. Sander, T., Harms, H., Dufeu, P., Kuhn, S., Hoehe, M., Lesch, K. P., Rommelspacher, H., & Schmidt, L. G. (1998). Serotonin transporter gene variants in alcohol-dependent subjects with dissocial personality disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 43, 908–912.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Schopler, E., Reichler, R. J., & Renner, B. R. (1986). The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) for diagnostic screening and classification of autism. New York, Irvington.Google Scholar
  96. Schreier, H., Rapin, I., & Davis, J. (1974). Familial megalencephaly or hydrocephalus? Neurology, 24, 232–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Seeman, M. V. (1997). Psychopathology in women and men: Focus on female hormones. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1641–1647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Shinnar, S., Rapin, I., Arnold, S., Tuchman, R. F., Shulman, L., Ballaban-Gil, K., Maw, M., Deuel, R. K., & Volkmar, F. R. (2001). Language regression in childhood. Pediatric Neurology, 24, 183–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Smalley, S. L., McCracken, J., & Tanguay, P. (1995). Autism, affective disorders, and social phobia. American Journal of Human Genetics, 60, 19–26.Google Scholar
  100. Sparrow, S., Balla, D., & Cicchetti, D. (1984). Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. American Guidance Service, Circle Pines, MN.Google Scholar
  101. Stevenson, R. E., Schroer, R. J., Skinner, C., Fender, D., & Simensen, R. J. (1997). Autism and macrocephaly. Lancet, 349, 1744–1745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Thomas, S. A., Marck, B. T., Palmiter, R. D., & Matsumoto, A. M. (1998). Restoration of norepinephrine and reversal of phenotypes in mice lacking dopamine beta-hydroxylase. Journal of Neurochemistry, 70, 2468–2476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Thomas, S. A., Matsumoto, A. M., & Palmiter, R. D. (1995). Noradrenaline is essential for mouse fetal development. Nature, 374, 643–646.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Thompson, W. D., Orvaschel, H., Prusoff, B. A., & Kidd, K. K. (1982). An evaluation of the family history method for ascertaining psychiatric disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 53–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Thorndike, R. L., Hagen, E. P., & Sattler, J. M. (1986). Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Riverside, Riverside, CA.Google Scholar
  106. Todd, R. D. (1992). Neural development is regulated by classical neurotransmitters: Dopamine D2 receptor stimulation enhances neurite outgrowth. Biological Psychiatry, 31, 794–807.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Tsuang, M. T., Lyons, M. J., Meyer, J. M., Doyle, T., Eisen, S. A., Goldberg, J., True, W., Lin, N., Toomey, R., & Eaves, L. (1998). Co-occurrence of abuse of different drugs in men: The role of drug-specific and shared vulnerabilities. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 967–972.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Tuchman, R. F., & Rapin, I. (1997). Regression in pervasive developmental disorders: Seizures and epileptiform electroencephalogram correlates. Pediatrics, 99, 560–566.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Valdes, A. M., McWeeney, S. K., & Thomson, G. (1999). Evidence for linkage and association to alcohol dependence on chromosome 19. Genetic Epidemiology, 17 Suppl 1, S367-S372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Weaver, D. D., & Christian, J. C. (1980). Familial variation of head size and adjustment for parental head circumference. Journal of Pediatrics, 96, 990–994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Wechsler, D. (1991). Manual for the Wechsler Scale for Children. Psychological Corp., San Antonio, TX.Google Scholar
  112. Wise, R. A., & Bozarth, M. A. (1987). A psychomotor stimulant theory of addiction. Psychological Review, 94, 469–492.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Woodhouse, W., Bailey, A., Rutter, M., Bolton, P., Baird, G., & Le Couteur, A. (1996). Head circumference in autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 37, 665–671.Google Scholar
  114. Yuan, H., Marazita, M. L., & Hill, S. Y. (1996). Segregation analysis of alcoholism in high density families: A replication. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 67, 71–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Zhou, Q., & Lovinger, D. M. (1996). Pharmacologic characteristics of potentiation of 5-HT3 receptors by alcohols and diethyl ether in NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 278, 732–740.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Judith H. Miles
    • 1
  • T. Nicole Takahashi
    • 1
  • Andrew Haber
    • 1
  • Laura Hadden
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Medical GeneticsUniversity of Missouri Hospitals and ClinicsColumbia

Personalised recommendations