Journal of Primary Prevention

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 257–285 | Cite as

DARE to be You: A Family-Support, Early Prevention Program

  • Jan Miller-Heyl
  • David MacPhee
  • Janet J. Fritz


DARE to be You is a multi-level prevention program aimed at 2-5 year olds in high-risk families. Program objectives focus on aspects of parenting that contribute to youths' resiliency to later substance use. These include improving parents' self-efficacy, effective child rearing, social support, and problem-solving skills as well as children's developmental attainments. Over a 5-year period, successive cohorts of families were randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 496) or control (n = 301) group. The DTBY program was provided to children, families, preschool teachers, and community professionals who work with youth. Families received a minimum of 24 hours of programs with follow-up support. Program replicability was tested at four sites, which varied in population density (urban, town, rural) and ethnic composition (Ute Mountain Ute, Hispanic, Anglo). Evaluation data reveal significant, persistent increases in parental self-appraisals and democratic child-rearing practices, with a corresponding decrease in harsh discipline. Parent satisfaction with social support increased; target children's developmental levels were enhanced and oppositional behavior declined. Implications for effective family intervention and self-efficacy as a key mechanism of change are discussed.

effective parenting family support resilience self-efficacy substance abuse prevention 


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Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan Miller-Heyl
    • 1
  • David MacPhee
    • 2
  • Janet J. Fritz
    • 2
  1. 1.CSU Cooperative ExtensionColorado State UniversityFort Collins
  2. 2.Department of Human Development and Family StudiesColorado State UniversityUSA

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