Nanofluids, a new class of solid/liquid suspensions, offer scientific challenges because their measured thermal conductivity is one order of magnitude greater than predictions. It has long been known that liquid molecules close to a solid surface form layered solid-like structures, but little is known about the connection between this nanolayer and the thermal properties of the suspensions. Here, we have modified the Maxwell equation for the effective thermal conductivity of solid/liquid suspensions to include the effect of this ordered nanolayer. Because this ordered nanolayer has a major impact on nanofluid thermal conductivity when the particle diameter is less than 10 nm, a new direction is indicated for development of next-generation coolants.
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Yu, W., Choi, S. The Role of Interfacial Layers in the Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids: A Renovated Maxwell Model. Journal of Nanoparticle Research 5, 167–171 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024438603801
- solid/liquid suspensions
- thermal conductivity
- heat exchanger