The effect of various abiotic stresses on germination rate, growth and soluble sugar content in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench cv. CSH 6 seed embryos and endosperm during early germination was investigated. Under stress conditions germination, water potential and tissue water content decreased markedly. Subsequently, this reduction resulted in marked decreases in fresh weight both in embryos and endosperm. Conversely, a substantial increase in dry weight was observed. Furthermore, a considerable increase in the sugar contents in both embryo and endosperm was detected. The fructose level was always higher than glucose and sucrose in response to various stresses. However, as compared to the control the level of glucose and sucrose was higher in embryos and endosperm after stress treatments. Based upon these results a possible physiological role of sugars in the germination of sorghum seeds is discussed.
This is a preview of subscription content,to check access.
Access this article
Similar content being viewed by others
Amuti K.S. and Pollard C.J. 1977. Soluble carbohydrates of dry and developing seeds. Phytochem. 16: 529–532.
BassiriRad H. and Coldwell M.M. 1992. Root growth, osmotic adjustment and NO −3 uptake during and after a period of drought in Artemesia tridentata. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 19: 493–500.
Bohnert H.J., Nelson D.E. and Jensen R.G. 1995. Adaptations to environmental stresses. Plant Cell 7: 1099–1111.
Cutler J.M., Shahan K.W. and Steponkus P.L. 1980. Influences of water potentials and osmotic adjustment on leaf elongation in rice. Crop Sci. 20: 314–318.
Doggett H. 1988. Sorghum. John Wiley, New York.
Dubois M., Gilles K.A., Hamilton J.K., Rebers P.A. and Smith F. 1956. Colorimetric method for the determination of sugars and related substances. Anal. Chem. 28: 350–356.
Epstein E., Rush J.D., Kingsbury R.W., Kelley D.B., Cinnigham G.A. and Wrono A.F. 1980. Saline culture of crops: a genetic approach. Science 210: 399–404.
Flowers T.J., Troke P.F. and Yeo A.R. 1977. The mechanism of salt tolerance in halophytes. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 28: 89–121.
Gill K.S. and Singh O.S. 1985. Effect of salinity on carbohydrate metabolism during paddy (Oryza sativa) seed germination under salt stress condition. J. Exp. Biol. 23: 384–386.
Gill P.K., Sharma A.D., Singh P. and Bhullar S.S. 2001. Effect of various abiotic stresses on the growth, soluble sugars and water relations of sorghum seedlings grown in light and darkness. Bulg. J. Plant Physiol. 27: 72–84.
Gorham J., Hughes L.Y. and Wynjones R.G. 1981. Low molecular weight carbohydrates in some salt stressed plants. Physiol. Plant. 53: 27–33.
Gupta A.K., Singh J., Kaur N. and Singh R. 1993. Effect of polyethylene glycol induced-water stress on germination and reserve carbohydrates metabolism in chickpea cultivars differing in tolerance to water deficit. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 31: 369–378.
Hoekstra F.A., Golovina E.A. and Butinik J. 2001. Mechanism of plant desiccation tolerance. Trends Plant Sci. 6: 431–438.
Kameli A. 1990. Metabolic responses of durum wheat to water stress and their role in drought resistance. PhD Diss., Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, U.K.
Kameli A. and Losel D.M. 1995. Contribution of carbohydrates and solutes to osmotic adjustment in wheat leaves under water stress. Plant Physiol. 145: 363–366.
Kameli A. and Losel D.M. 1996. Growth and sugar accumulation in durum wheat plants under water stress. New Phytol. 132: 57–62.
Khan M.A. and Ungar I.A. 1984. Seed polymorphism and germination responses to salt stress in Atriplex triangularis. Bot. Gaz. 145: 487–494.
Koster K.L. and Leopold A.C. 1988. Sugar and desiccation tolerance in seeds. Plant Physiol. 88: 829–832.
Mayer A.M. and Poljakoff-Mayber A. 1975. The Germination of Seeds. Pergamon Press, New York.
Meier H. and Reid J.S.G. 1982. Reserve polysaccharides other than starch in higher plants. In: Loewus F.A. and Tanner W. (eds), Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, New Series. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 418–471.
Meyer R.F. and Boyer J.S. 1981. Osmoregulation, solute distribution and growth in soybean seedlings having low water potentials. Planta 151: 482–489.
Nelson N. 1944. A photometric adaptation of Somogyi method for the determination of glucose. J. Biol. Chem. 153: 315–380.
Pennypacker B.W., Leath K.L., Stout W.L. and Hill R.R. 1990. Techniques for stimulating field drought stress in greenhouse. Agron. J. 82: 951–957.
Prado F.E., Boero C., Gallardo M. and Gonzalez J.A. 2000. Effect of NaCl on germination, growth and soluble sugar content in Chenopodium quinoa willd seeds. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 41: 27–34.
Prado F.E., Gonzalez J.A., Gallardo M., Moris M., Boero C. and Kortsarz A. 1995. Changes in soluble carbohydrates and invertase activity in Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) developed for saline stress during germination. Cur. Top. Phytol. 14: 1–5.
Quinby J.R. 1974. Sorghum Improvement and the Genetics of Growth. Texas A&M University Press, College station, TX.
Schubert S., Serraj R., Plies-Balzer E. and Mengel K. 1995. Effect of drought stress on growth, sugar concentrations and amino acid accumulation in N2-fixing alfalfa (Medicago sativa). J. Plant Physiol. 146: 541–546.
Siddique M.R.B., Hamid A. and Islam M.S. 2000. Drought stress effects on water relations of wheat. Bot Bull. Acad. Sin. 41: 35–39.
Singh P., Bhaglal P. and Bhullar S.S. 1996. Differential levels of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) in germinating embryos of different wheat cultivars in response to osmotic stress. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 34: 547–552.
Singh R., Kaur P., Goyal J. and Gupta A.K. 1987. Interconversion and translocation of free sugars during galactomannan utilization in germinating guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) seeds. Plant Sci. 51: 21–28.
Singh R. and Machlachlan G. 1983. Transport and metabolism of sucrose vs hexoses in relation to growth in etiolated pea stem. Plant Physiol. 71: 531–535.
Spyropoulos C.G. 1982. Control of sucrose metabolism in polyethylene glycol stressed carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) young seedling. The role of sucrose. J. Exp. Bot. 33: 1210–1219.
Sunderland N. 1960. Cell division and expansion in the growth of the leaf. J. Exp. Bot. 11: 68–80.
Trevelyan W.E., Procter D.P. and Harrison J.S. 1950. Detection of sugar on paper chromatogram. Nature 166: 444–445.
Wang Z., Quebedeaux B. and Stutte G.W. 1996. Partitioning of (14C) glucose into sorbitol and other carbohydrates in apple under water stress. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 23: 245–251.
Williams R.J. and Leopold A.C. 1989. The glassy state in corn embryos. Plant Physiol. 89: 977–981.
Yu S.M., Lee Y.C., Fang S.C., Chan M.T., Hwa S.F. and Liu L.F. 1996. Sugars act as signal molecules and osmotica to regulate the expression of alpha-amylase genes and metabolic activities in germinating cereal grains. lant Mol. Biol. 30: 1277–1289.
About this article
Cite this article
Gill, P.K., Sharma, A.D., Singh, P. et al. Changes in germination, growth and soluble sugar contents of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench seeds under various abiotic stresses. Plant Growth Regulation 40, 157–162 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024252222376