Wetlands Ecology and Management

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 141–156 | Cite as

Effects of agriculture and wetland restoration on hydrology, soils, and water quality of a Carolina bay complex

  • Gregory L. Bruland
  • Matthew F. Hanchey
  • Curtis J. Richardson
Article

Abstract

We compared hydrology, soils, and water quality of an agricultural field (AG), a two-year-old restored wetland (RW), and two reference ecosystems (a non-riverine swamp forest (NRSF) and a high pocosin forest (POC)) located at the Barra Farms Regional Wetland Mitigation Bank, a Carolina bay complex in Cumberland County, North Carolina. Our main objectives were to: 1) determine if the RW exhibited hydrology comparable to a reference ecosystem, 2) characterize the soils of the AG, RW, and reference ecosystems, and 3) assess differences in water quality in the surface outflow from the AG, RW, and reference ecosystems. Water table data indicated that the hydrology of the RW has been successfully reestablished as the hydroperiod of the RW closely matched that of the NRSF in 1998 and 1999. Jurisdictional hydrologic success criterion was also met by the RW in both years. To characterize soil properties, soil cores from each ecosystem were analyzed for bulk density (Db), total carbon (Ct), nitrogen (Nt), and phosphorus (Pt), extractable phosphate (PO4w), nitrogen (Nex), and cations (Caex, Mgex, Kex, Naex), as well as pH. Bulk density, Pt, Caex, Mgex, and pH were greatly elevated in the AG and RW compared to the reference ecosystems. Water quality monitoring consisted of measuring soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), total phosphorus (TP), nitrate + nitrite (NOX), and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations in surface water from the AG, RW, and reference outflows. Outflow concentrations of SRP, TP, and NOX were highest and most variable in the AG, while TN was highest in the reference. This study suggested that while restoration of wetland hydrology has been successful in the short term, alteration of wetland soil properties by agriculture was so intense, that changes due to restoration were not apparent for most soil parameters. Restoration also appeared to provide water quality benefits, as outflow concentrations of SRP, TP, NOX, and TN were lower in the RW than the AG.

Agriculture Carolina bay Hydrology Land-use North Carolina Soil properties Water quality Wetland restoration 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Armentano T.V. and Menges S.E. 1986. Patterns of change in the carbon balance of organic soil wetlands of the temperate zone. Journal of Ecology 74: 755–774.Google Scholar
  2. Ash A.N., McDonald C.B., Kane E.S. and Pories C.A. 1983. Natural and modified pocosins: literature synthesis and managebefore ment options. FWS/OBS-83/ 04. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Biological Services, Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
  3. Bishel-Machung L., Brooks R.P., Yates S.S. and Hoover K.L. 1996. Soil properties of reference wetlands and wetland creation pro-jects in Pennsylvania. Wetlands 16: 532–541.Google Scholar
  4. Brady N.C. and Weil R.R. 1999. The Nature and Properties of Soils. 12th edn. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersy, USA.Google Scholar
  5. Braekke F.H. 1999. Drainage, liming and fertilization of organic Instisoils. I. Long-term effects on acid / base relations. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 14: 51–63.Google Scholar
  6. Bridgham S.D. and Richardson C.J. 1993. Hydrology and nutrient gradients in North Carolina peatlands. Wetlands 13: 207–218.Google Scholar
  7. Bridgham S.D., Richardson C.J., Maltby E. and Faulkner S.P. 1991. Cellulose decay in natural and disturbed peatlands in North Carolina. Journal of Environmental Quality 20: 695–701.Google Scholar
  8. Buyanovsky G.A. and Wagner G.H. 1998. Changing role of culti-vated land in the global carbon cycle. Biology and Fertility of Soils 27: 242–245.Google Scholar
  9. Compton J.E. and Boone R.D. 2000. Long-term impacts of agricul-Wilture on soil carbon and nitrogen in New England forests. Ecology 81: 2314–2330.Google Scholar
  10. Cowardin L.M., Carter V., Golet F.C. and LaRue E.T. 1979. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. FWS/OBS-79-31. United States Fish and Wildlife Ser-vice, Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
  11. Dunne T. and Leopold L.G. 1978. Water in Environmental Plan-ning. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  12. EcoScience 1998. Wetland Monitoring Report. Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.Google Scholar
  13. Eiumnoh A. 1977. Influence of organic matter on soil plow layer properties, PhD, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.Google Scholar
  14. Environmental Services 1997. Stream and wetland mitigation plan: Barra Farms Cape Fear regional wetland mitigation bank. En-vironmental Services, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.Google Scholar
  15. Hendershot W.H., Lalande H. and Duquette M. 1993. Soil reaction and exchangeable acidity. In: Carter M.R. (ed.), Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, pp. 141–145.Google Scholar
  16. Flowers S.R. 1924. J.E. Cole – J.N. Gray Land's. Land survey map. Land's, Cumberland County, NC, USA.Google Scholar
  17. Hudson B.D. 1984. Soil Survey of Cumberland and Hoke Counties North Carolina. US Department of Agriculture, Soil Conserva-tion Service in cooperation with the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, North Carolina Agicultural Research Service, North Carolina Agricul-tural Extension Service, United States Army, Cumberland Coun-ty Board of Commissioners, and The Hoke County Board of Commissioners.Google Scholar
  18. Jackson M.L. 1958. Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice-Hall Inc, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA.Google Scholar
  19. Keeney D.R. and Nelson D.W. 1982. Nitrogen-inorganic forms. In: Page A.L., Miller R.H. and Keeney D.R. (eds), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Ag-ronomy Monograph 9. 2nd edn. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, pp. 643–698.Google Scholar
  20. Kirby-Smith W.W. and Barber R.T. 1979. The water quality ramifi-cations in estuaries of converting forests to intensive agriculture. Report 184.Water Resources Research Institute, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.Google Scholar
  21. Kirkman L.K. and Sharitz R.R. 1994. Vegetation disturbance and maintenance of diversity in intermittently flooded Carolina bays in South Carolina. Ecological Applications 4: 177–188.Google Scholar
  22. Kirkman L.K., Lide R.F., Wein G. and Sharitz R.R. 1996.Vegeta-tion changes and land-use legacies of depression wetlands of the western coastal plain of South Carolina: 1951–1992. Wetlands 16: 564–576.Google Scholar
  23. Kuenzler E.J., Mulholland P.I., Ruley L.A. and Sniffen R.P. 1977. Water quality in North Carolina coastal plain streams and effects of channelization. Report 127. Water Resources Research Instisoils. tute, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.Google Scholar
  24. Kusler J.A. and Kentula M.E. 1990. Executive Summary. In: Wetland Creation and Restoration: The Status of the Science. Island Press, Washington, DC, USA, pp. xvii–xxv.Google Scholar
  25. Land Management Group Inc. 2000a. Wetland Monitoring Report (Year 2). Land Management Group Inc., Wilmington, North Carolina, USA.Google Scholar
  26. Land Management Group Inc. 2000b. Progress report: results of April 2000 vegetation monitoring at Barra Farms Cape Fear regional mitigation bank. Land Management Group Inc., Wilture mington, North Carolina, USA.Google Scholar
  27. Legendre P. and Legendre L. 1988. Numerical Ecology. Elsevier Sceince, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  28. Lilly J.P. 1981. The blackland soils of North Carolina. Technical Bulletin Number 270. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.Google Scholar
  29. Lide R.F., Meentemeyer V.G., Pinder J.E. and Beatty L.M. 1995. Hydrology of a Carolina bay located on the upper coastal plain of western South Carolina. Wetlands 15: 47–57.Google Scholar
  30. McCune B. and Mefford M.J. 1999. PC-ORD: Multivariate analy-sis of ecological data (version 4). MjM Software Design, Gleneden, Beach Oregon, USA.Google Scholar
  31. Murphy J. and Riley J. 1962. A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Analytica Chimica Acta 27: 31–36.Google Scholar
  32. NOAA 1998–1999. Climatological data annual summary: North Carolina. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, DC, USA. 103–104.Google Scholar
  33. Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2000. “WETS Station: Fayetteville, NC 3017.” (1 Sept. 2000). ftp: / / ftp.wcc.nrcs.us-da.gov/ support / climate /wetlands/nc/ 37051.txt.Google Scholar
  34. O'Halloran I.P.O. 1993. Total and organic phosphorus. In: Carter M.R. (ed.), Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 216–217.Google Scholar
  35. Paz-Gonzales A., Vieira S.R. and Taboada Castro M.T. 2000. The effect of cultivation on the spatial variability of selected prop-erties of an umbric horizon. Geoderma 97: 273–292.Google Scholar
  36. Pote D.H., Daniels T.C., Nichols D.J., Sharpley A.N., Moore P.A. Jr, Miller D.M. et al. 1999. Relationship between phosphorus levels in three Ultisols and phosphorus concentrations in runoff. Journal of Environmental Quality 28: 170–175.Google Scholar
  37. Perkins S.O., Davis W.A. and Davidson S.F. 1925.Soil Survey of Cumberland County, North Carolina. US Department of Agricul-ture, Bureau of Soils. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
  38. Rheinhardt R.D. and Brinson M.M. 2000. An evaluation of the effectiveness of existing North Carolina Department of Trans-portation mitigation sites (Phase 1 Report). US Department of Transportation Research and Special Program Administration, Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
  39. Richardson C.J. and Gibbons J.W. 1993. Pocosins, Carolina bays, and mountain bogs. In: Martin W.H., Boyce S.G. and Echternacht A.C. (eds), Biodiversity of the Southeastern United States. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, New York, USA, pp. 257–309.Google Scholar
  40. Richardson C.J. 1981. Pocosins: Ecosystem processes and the influence of man on system response. In: Richardson C.J. (ed.), Pocosin wetlands. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg Pennsylvania, USA.Google Scholar
  41. Richter D.D., Markewitz D., Trumbore S.E. and Wells C.G. 1999. Rapid accumulation and turnover of soil carbon in a re-establish-ing forest. Nature 400: 56–58.Google Scholar
  42. Schlesinger W.H. 1986. Changes in soil carbon storage and associ-ated properties with disturbance and recovery. In: Trabalka J.R. environand Reichle D.E. (eds), The changing carbon cycle: a global referanalysis. Springer-Verlag, New York, New York, USA, pp. 194– 220.Google Scholar
  43. Schlesinger W.H. 1999. Carbon sequestration in soils. Nature 284: 2095.Google Scholar
  44. Schalles J.F. and Shure D.J. 1989. Hydrology, community struc-ture, and productivity patterns of a dystrophic Carolina bay wetland. Ecological Monographs 59: 365–385.Google Scholar
  45. Shafale M.P. and Weakley A.S. 1990. Classification of the Natural Communities of North Carolina: third approximation. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Division of Parks and Re-creation, Dept. of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.Google Scholar
  46. Shaffer P.W., Cole C.A., Kentula M.E. and Brooks R.P. 2000. Effects of measurement frequency on water-level summary statistics. Wetlands 20: 148–161.Google Scholar
  47. Shaffer P.W. and Ernst T.L. 1999. Distribution of soil organic matter in freshwater emergent/open water wetlands in the Port-land, Oregon metropolitan area. Wetlands 19: 505–516.Google Scholar
  48. Sharitz R.R. and Gibbons J.W. 1982. The ecology of southeastern shrub bogs (pocosins) and Carolina bays a community profile. FWS/OBS-82/ 04. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Biological Services, Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
  49. Simmons J.A., Yavitt J.B. and Fahey T.J. 1996.Watershed liming effects on the forest floor N cycle. Biogeochemistry 32: 221– 224.Google Scholar
  50. Skaggs R.W., Gilliam J.W., Sheets T.J. and Barnes J.S. 1980. Effect of agricultural land development on drainage waters in the North Carolina tidewater region. UNC-WRRI-80-159.Water Resources Research Institute of the University of North Carolina, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.Google Scholar
  51. Sprecher S.W. 1993. Installing and monitoring wells / piezometers in wetlands. WRP Technical Note. WRP TN HY-IA-3.1. USAE Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS, USA.Google Scholar
  52. Stolt M.H., Genthner M.H., Daniels W.L., Groover V.A., Nagle S. and Haering K.C. 2000. Comparison of soil and other environand mental conditions in constructed and adjacent palustrine referanalysis. ence wetlands. Wetlands 20: 671–683.Google Scholar
  53. Vaithiyanathan P. and Richardson C.J. 1997. Nutrient profiles in the everglades: examination along the eutrophication gradient. The Science of the Total Environment 205: 81–95.Google Scholar
  54. Venables W.N. and Ripley B.D. 1997. Modern Applied Statistics with S1. 2nd edn. Springer-Verlag Inc., New York, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  55. Verheyen K., Bossuyt B., Hermy M. and Tack G. 1999. The land use history of a mixed hardwood forest in western Belgium and its relationship with chemical soil characteristics. Journal of Biogeography 26: 1115–1128.Google Scholar
  56. Walbridge M.R. 1991. Phosphorus availability in acid organic soils of the lower North Carolina coastal plain. Ecology 72: 2083– 2100.Google Scholar
  57. Walbridge M.R. and Richardson C.J. 1991. Water quality of pocosins and associated wetlands of the coastal plain.Wetlands 11: 417–438.Google Scholar
  58. Wells B.W. and Boyce S.G. 1953. Carolina bays: additional data on their origin, age and history. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 69: 119–141.Google Scholar
  59. Williams T.M. and Askew G.R. 1988. Impact of drainage and site conversion of pocosin lands on water quality. In: Hook D.D., McKee W.H. Jr, Smith H.K., Gregory J., Burrell V.G. Jr, DeVoe M.R. et al. (eds), The Ecology and Management of Wetlands, Management, Use, and Value of Wetlands Vol. 2. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, USA, pp. 213–218.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregory L. Bruland
    • 1
  • Matthew F. Hanchey
    • 1
  • Curtis J. Richardson
    • 1
  1. 1.Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth SciencesDuke University Wetland CenterDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations