Sulfonamides and trimethoprim are chemotherapeutics that are extensively used in various animal species. Little information about the pharmacokinetics of these compounds in chickens exists in the literature. In this study, a new commercial formulation of sulfadiazine in combination with trimethoprim was administered both intravenously and orally, according to a crossover design, to healthy, 7-week-old broilers. The plasma concentrations of the drugs were determined by validated high-performance liquid chromatographic methods, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. After intravenous or oral administration of trimethoprim (6.67 mg/kg body weight) and sulfadiazine (33.34 mg/kg body weight), both active substances were rapidly eliminated from the plasma. There was a mean half-life of 1.61 h for trimethoprim and 3.2 h for sulfadiazine. The apparent volumes of distribution (2.2 and 0.43 L/kg, respectively, indicated that the tissue distribution of trimethoprim was more extensive than that of sulfadiazine. The oral bioavailability was approximately 80% for both components.
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Baert, K., De Baere, S., Croubels, S. et al. Pharmacokinetics and Oral Bioavailability of Sulfadiazine and Trimethoprim in Broiler Chickens. Vet Res Commun 27, 301–309 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024084108803