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Plant Molecular Biology

, Volume 52, Issue 2, pp 331–341 | Cite as

Molecular characterization of His-Asp phosphorelay signaling factors in maize leaves: Implications of the signal divergence by cytokinin-inducible response regulators in the cytosol and the nuclei

  • Yasuharu Asakura
  • Takeshi Hagino
  • Yukinori Ohta
  • Koh Aoki
  • Keiko Yonekura-Sakakibara
  • Atsushi Deji
  • Tomoyuki Yamaya
  • Tatsuo Sugiyama
  • Hitoshi SakakibaraEmail author
Article

Abstract

Genes for histidyl-aspartyl (His-Asp) phosphorelay components (His-containing phosphotransfer proteins, HP, and response regulators, RR) were isolated from Zea mays L. to characterize their function in cytokinin signaling. Six type-A RRs (ZmRR1, ZmRR2, ZmRR4–ZmRR7), 3 type-B RRs (ZmRR8–ZmRR10), and 3 HPs (ZmHP1–ZmHP3) were found in leaves. All type-A RR genes expressed in leaves were up-regulated by exogenous cytokinin. Transient expression of fusion products of the signaling modules with green fluorescent protein in epidermal leaf cells suggested cytosolic and nuclear localizations of ZmHPs, whereas type-B ZmRR8 was restricted to the nucleus. Type-A RRs were localized partly to the cytosol (ZmRR1, ZmRR2, and ZmRR3) and partly to the nucleus (ZmRR4, ZmRR5, and ZmRR6). In the yeast two-hybrid assay, ZmHP1 and ZmHP3 interacted with both cytosolic ZmRR1 and nuclear type-B ZmRRs. In vitro experiments demonstrated that ZmHPs function as a phospho-donor for ZmRRs; turnover rates of the phosphorylated state were tenfold lower in ZmRR8 and ZmRR9 than in ZmRR1 and ZmRR4. These results suggest that the His-Asp phosphorelay signaling pathway might diverge into a cytosolic and a nuclear branch in leaves of maize, and that the biochemical nature of ZmRRs is different in terms of stability of the phosphorylated status.

cytokinin His-Asp phosphorelay His-containing phosphotransfer protein response regulator two-hybrid analysis Zea mays 

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasuharu Asakura
    • 1
    • 2
  • Takeshi Hagino
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yukinori Ohta
    • 2
  • Koh Aoki
    • 1
  • Keiko Yonekura-Sakakibara
    • 1
  • Atsushi Deji
    • 2
  • Tomoyuki Yamaya
    • 1
  • Tatsuo Sugiyama
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hitoshi Sakakibara
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Plant Science Center, RIKEN (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research)YokohamaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Biological Mechanisms and Functions, Graduate School of Bioagricultural SciencesNagoya University, ChikusaNagoyaJapan

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