Fifty-six bread wheat cultivars and advanced lines from major Chinese wheat growing regions and 10 Australian cultivars were grown in Anyang located in Yellow and Huai Valleys and Chengdu located in Yangtze region. The genotypes were examined for their suitability to produce northern style Chinese steamed bread (CSB) and used to investigate the association between wheat quality traits and performance of northern style CSB under manual and mechanized processing conditions. Anyang-sown wheat samples showed better grain quality characteristics and CSB quality than the Chengdu-sown materials. These differences were largely due to adverse climatic conditions prevailing in Chengdu that resulted in the deterioration of flour whiteness, Farinograph stability, and starch quality. Therefore, Chengdu was generally unfavorable for producing good quality wheat. However, significant variability among cultivars was observed in Chengdu, and Batavia, Dollar bird, and Tasman from Australia and Jing 411, Xiaoyan6, and Shaan 229 from China showed very good CSB quality under manual conditions, and Hartog, Batavia, Tasman, and Vulcan from Australia, and Jing 411 and Dongfeng 1from China were identified to confer good CSB quality under mechanized conditions. The wide range of CSB quality variations indicates that genetic improvement of CSB quality is possible in both environments. Protein content, gluten strength, and extensibility were positively associated with loaf volume and steamed bread elasticity. The relationship between gluten strength, extensibility, and appearance and stickiness were highly dependent on processing methods, i.e., negatively using a manual method and positively or slightly negatively using a mechanized process. Therefore, wheat quality requirement for CSB depends on CSB processing conditions. Medium protein content and medium-to-strong gluten strength with good extensibility is desirable for mechanized methods, but weak-to-medium gluten type for manual methods. High flour whiteness and RVA peak viscosity was found desirable for CSB quality regardless of the processing method used. Flour whiteness, falling number, and peak viscosity appeared to be more crucial in determining CSB quality in Chengdu, although protein content and Farinograph stability also contributed to appearance, elasticity, and stickiness.
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He, Z., Liu, A., Javier Peña, R. et al. Suitability of Chinese wheat cultivars for production of northern style Chinese steamed bread. Euphytica 131, 155–163 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023929513167
- bread wheat
- Chinese steamed bread
- gluten strength
- protein content
- starch quality
- Triticum aestivum