NGOs and the Development of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Understanding Large-Scale Interorganizational Systems

Abstract

Relief efforts resulting from the $5 billion Priority Reconstruction Program, launched as part of the 1995 Dayton Peace Agreement, attracted nearly 500 nonprofit organizations to the small, newly independent nation of Bosnia. Donor resources and recipient needs changed over time forcing constant adjustment in this environment, at times resulting in service overlap, inefficiency, and waste. However, the inter-relatedness of tasks in this war-torn country continually reminded players of the need for cooperative, coordinated action. Within a short time, intricate webs of interorganizational relationships emerged among donors, NGO implementers, and host nation players, at both ground and global levels. The research reported here is based on extensive interview material with a diverse range of informants.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

REFERENCES

  1. Ariñno, A., and de la Torre, J. (1998). Learning from failure: Towards an evolutionary model of collab-orative ventures. Organ. Sci. 9: 306-325.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Arrow, K. (1974). The Limits of Organization, W.W. Norton, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Astley, W. G. (1984). Toward an appreciation of collective strategy. Acad. Manage. Rev. 9(3): 526-535.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Aubrey, L. (1997). The Politics of Development Cooperation: NGOs, Gender and Partnerships in Kenya, Routledge, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Bacharach, S. (1989). Organizational theories: Some criteria for evaluation. Acad. Manage. Rev. 14(4): 496-515.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Barnett, W. P., Mischke, G. A., and Ocasio, W. (2000). The evolution of collective strategies among organizations. Strateg. Manage. J. 21(2): 325-354.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Barr, P. S. (1998). Adapting to unfamiliar environmental events: A look at the evolution of interpretation and its role in strategic change. Organ. Sci. 9(6): 644-669.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Black, J. K. (1999). Development in Theory and Practice, Westview Press, Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Boyce, J. K. (1995). Adjustment toward peace: An introduction. World Dev. 23(12): 2067-2077.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Brinkerhoff, D. (1996). Coordination issues in policy implementation networks: An illustration from Madagascar's environmental action plan. World Dev. 24: 1497-1510.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Dickson, P., and Weaver, K. (1997). Environmental determinants and individual-level moderators of alliance use. Acad. Manage. J. 40: 404-425.

    Google Scholar 

  12. The Economist (2000). NGOs: Sins of the Secular Missionaries. January 29, pp. 130-132.

  13. Evans, P. (1996a). Introduction: Development strategies across the public-private divide. World Dev. 24: 1033-1037.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Evans, P. (1996b). Government action, social capital and development: Reviewing the evidence on synergy. World Dev. 24: 1119-1132.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Faerman, S. R., McCaffrey, D. P., and Van Slyke, D. M. (2001). Understanding interorganizational cooperation: Public-private collaboration in regulating financial market innovation. Organ. Sci.12: 372-388.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Fombrun, C. J. (1986). Structural dynamics within and between organizations. Adm. Sci. Q. 31: 403-421.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Goldsmith, A. (1996). Strategic thinking in international development: Using management tools to see the big picture. World Dev. 24: 1431-1439.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Grandori, A., and Soda, G. (1995). Inter-firm networks: Antecedents, mechanisms and forms. Organ. Stud. 16(2): 183-214.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Granovetter, M. (1973). The strength of weak ties. Am. J. Sociol. 78(6): 1360-1380.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Gray, B. (1989). Collaborating: Finding Common Ground for Multiparty Problems, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Griffen, K. (2000). Studies in Development Strategy and Systematic Transformation, St. Martin's Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Gulati, R. (1995). Does familiarity breed trust? The implications of repeated ties for contractual choices in alliances. Acad. Manage. J. 38: 85-112.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Gulati, R., and Singh, H. (1998). The architecture of cooperation: Managing coordination costs and appropriation concerns in strategic alliances. Adm. Sci. Q. 43: 781-814.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Hall, R. H., Clark, J. P., Giordano, P. C., Johnson, P. V., and Van Roekel, M. (1977). Patterns of interorganizational relationships. Adm. Sci. Q. 22: 457-475.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Hardy, C., and Phillips, N. (1998). Strategies of engagement: Lessons from the critical examination of collaboration and conflict in an interorganizational domain. Organ. Sci. 9(2): 217-230.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Haughton, J. (1998). The reconstruction of war-torn economies. CAER Discussion Paper No. 23, Harvard Institute for International Development, Cambridge, MA.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Huddleston, M. W. (1999). Innocents abroad: Reflections from a public administration consultant in Bosnia. Public Adm. Rev. 59(2): 147-157.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Human, S. E., and Provan, K. G. (2000). Legitimacy building in the evolution of small-firm multilateral networks: A comparative study of success and demise. Adm. Sci. Q. 45: 327-365.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Jarillo, J. C. (1988). On strategic networks. Strateg. Manage. J. 9: 31-41.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Koza, M. P., and Lewin, A. Y. (1998). The co-evolution of strategic alliances. Organ. Sci. 9(3): 255-263.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Kraatz, M. S. (1998). Learning by association? Interorganizational networks and adaptation to envi-ronmental change. Acad. Manage. J. 41(6): 621-643.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Kiggundu, M. (1996). Integrating strategic management tasks into implementing agencies: From fire-fighting to prevention. World Dev. 24: 1417-1430.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Lammers, C. J. (1988). The interorganizational control of an occupied country. Adm. Sci. Q. 33: 438-457.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Larson, A. (1992). Network dyads in entrepreneurial settings: A study of the governance of exchange relationships. Adm. Sci. Q. 37: 76-104.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Lorange, P., and Roos, J. (1992). Strategic Alliances, Blackwell, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Martin, E. (2003). Privatization in Bosnia and the Craft of IOR Process Analysis. Organization Studies, forthcoming.

  37. Martin, E., Faerman, S., and McCaffrey, D. (2000). Interorganizational Cooperation After a War: International development assistance efforts in Bosnia and Herzegovina 1999–2000. Academy of Management Annual Conference, Toronto.

    Google Scholar 

  38. McCaffrey, D., Faerman, S., and Hart, D. (1995). The appeal and difficulties of participative systems. Organ. Sci. 6: 603-627.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Meyer, A. D. (1982). Adapting to environmental jolts. Adm. Sci. Q. 27: 515-537.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Mosse, D., Farrington, J., and Rew, A. (1998). Development as Process, ODI Development Policy Studies, Routledge Research, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Njoh, A. (1993). The effectiveness theory of interorganizational relations explored in the context of a developing nation. Int. Rev. Adm. Sci. 59: 235-250.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Oliver, C. (1990). Determinants of interorganizational relationships: Integration and future directions. Acad. Manage. Rev. 15: 241-265.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Ostrom, E. (1996). Crossing the great divide: Coproduction, synergy and development. World Dev. 24(6): 1073-1087.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Ostrom, E. (1998). A behavioral approach to the rational choice theory of collective action. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 92(1): 1-22.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Raelin, J. A. (1982). A policy output model of interorganizational relations. Organ. Stud. 3(3): 243-267.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Riggs, F. (1960). Comparative Administration Group, Ford Foundation.

  47. Ring, P., and Van De Ven, A. (1994). Developmental processes of cooperative interorganizational relationships. Acad. Manage. Rev. 19: 90-118.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Ritti, R. R., and Silver, J. H. (1986). Early processes of institutionalization: The dramaturgy of exchange in interorganizational relations. Adm. Sci. Q. 31: 25-42.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Roberts, N. C., and Bradley, R. T. (2001). Organizing for Peace Operations. 6th Public Management Research Conference, October, Indiana.

  50. Rondinelli, D. (1987). Development Administration and US Foreign Policy, Lynn Reinner, Boulder.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Rondinelli, D. (1994). Strategic management in foreign aid agencies: Developing a results-based performance system. Int. Rev. Adm. Sci. 60: 465-482.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Rondinelli, D., and Black, S. S. (2000). Multinational strategic alliances and acquisitions in Central and Eastern Europe: Partnerships in privatization. Acad. Manage. Exec. 14(4): 85-98.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Smillie, I. (1995). The Alms Bazaar, International Development Resource Center, Ottawa, Canada.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Starkweather, D. B. (1970). Health facility merger and integration. A typology and some hypotheses. In: White, P. E., and Vlasak, G. J. (eds.), Interorganizational Research in Health, Conference Proceedings, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Strauss, A., and Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of Qualitative Research, Sage, California.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Uzzi, B. (1997). Social structure and competition in interfirm networks: The paradox of embeddedness. Adm. Sci. Q. 42: 35-67.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Van de Ven, A. H. (1976). On the nature, formation and maintenance of relations among organizations. Acad. Manage. Rev. 1(4): 24-36.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Van de Ven, A. H., and Walker, G. (1984). The dynamics of interorganizational coordination. Adm. Sci. Q. 29: 598-621.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Westley, F., and Vredenburg, H. (1997). Interorganizational collaboration and the preservation of global biodiversity. Organ. Sci. 8: 381-403.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Whetten, D. A., and Leung, T. K. (1979). The instrumental value of interorganizational relations: Antecedents and consequences of linkage formation. Acad. Manage. J. 22(2): 325-344.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Zajac, E. J., and Olsen, C. P. (1993). From transaction cost to transaction value analysis: Implications for the study of interorganizational strategies. J. Manage. Stud. 30(1): 131-145.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Martin, E.C., Miller, J.L. NGOs and the Development of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Understanding Large-Scale Interorganizational Systems. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 14, 145–166 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023913310362

Download citation

  • international non-governmental organizations
  • international development assistance
  • interorganizational relationships
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina