Journal of Fusion Energy

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 197–201 | Cite as

Neutron Repulsion Confirmed as Energy Source

  • O. ManuelEmail author
  • E. Miller
  • A. Katragada


Systematic properties of heavy nuclides reveal a fine structure in Coulomb energy that parallels variations in mass arising from n-n interactions between neutrons. These results confirm an earlier suggestion that n-n interactions in the nucleus are repulsive. Neutron emission may release up to 1.1%–2.4% of the nuclear rest mass as energy. By comparison, 0.8% of the rest mass is converted to energy in hydrogen fusion and 0.1% is converted to energy in fission. Neutron emission in the core of the Sun may trigger a series of reactions that collectively produce the Sun's luminosity and an outpouring of protons and neutrinos from its surface.

Nucleon interactions neutron-neutron repulsion solar energy 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    O. Manuel, C. Bolon, A. Katragada, and M. Insall, J. Fusion Energy 19, 93-98 (2000).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    O. Manuel, in Origin of Elements in the Solar System: Implications of Post-1957 Observations, Proceedings of the 1999 ACS Symposium organized by Glenn T. Seaborg and Oliver K. Manuel, edited by O. Manuel (Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, NY, 2000) pp. 589-643.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    O. Manuel, C. Bolon, M. Zhong, and P. Jangam, Abstract 1041, Lunar Planetary Science Conference XXXII, LPI Contribution No. 1080, ISSN No. 0161-5297 (2001).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    O. Manuel, C. Bolon, and A. Katragada, Meteoritics and Planet. Sci. 37, A92 (2002).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    O. Manuel, in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Beyond Standard Model Physics-BEYOND 2002, Oulu, Finland (IOP, Bristol, England, in press, 2002).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    O. Manuel and A. Katragada, in Proceedings of the Conference on Asteroids, Comets and Meteros, Berlin, Germany (ESA SP-500, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, in press, 2002).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    O. Manuel and S. Friberg, in Proceedings of SOHO 12/GONG1 Conference, Big Bear Lake, CA (ESA SP-517 SOHO/GONG, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, in press, 2003).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. K. Tuli, Nuclear Wallet Cards, 6th ed. (Bookhaven National Laboratory, National Nuclear Data Center, Upton, NY, 2000) 74 pp.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    C. F. v. Weizäcker, “Zur Theorie der Kernmassen,” Z. Physik 96, 431-458 (1935).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. D. Evans, The Atomic Nucleus (McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., New York, NY, 1955) p. 33.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    O. Manuel, C. Bolon, and M. Zhong, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 252, 3-7 (2002).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    O. Manuel and D. Sabu, Trans. Mo. Acad. Sci. 9, 104-122 (1975).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    O. Manuel and D. Sabu, Science 195, 208-209 (1977).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. Davis Jr., D. S. Harmer and K. C. Hoffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 1205-1209 (1968).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. R. Cronin and S. Pizzarello, Science 274, 951-955 (1997).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. A. Penzias and R. W. Wilson, Ap. J. 142, 419-421 (1965).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of MissouriRollaUSA

Personalised recommendations