Advertisement

Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 197–205 | Cite as

Bovine Mastitis in Selected Areas of Southern Ethiopia

  • O. Kerro Dego
  • F. Tareke
Article

Abstract

A study on bovine mastitis, designed to determine the causal agents, prevalence of infection and impact of risk factors in three cattle breeds, was conducted in selected areas of southern Ethiopia. A total of 307 lactating and non-lactating cows, of which 162 were indigenous Zebu, 85 Jersey and 60 Holstein-Friesian, were examined by clinical examination and the California mastitis (CMT) test. Of these, 40.4% were positive by CMT and bacteriology for clinical or subclinical mastitis, with prevalence rates of 37.1% and 62.9%, respectively. Out of 1133 quarters examined, 212 (18.7%) were found to be infected, 83 (39.2%) clinically and 129 (60.8%) subclinically. The prevalence of mastitis was significantly higher in Holstein-Friesian than in indigenous Zebu, in non-lactating cows than in lactating cows, in the early lactation stage than in the mid-lactation stage, in cows with lesions and/or tick infestation on skin of udder and/or teats than in cows without this factor, and in the wet season than in the dry season. Mastitis increased with parity number (R = 0.9). Of 248 CMT and clinically positive udder quarter samples analysed microbiologically, 212 were culturally positive for known mastitis pathogens and 36 were negative. Of the 199 positive samples, Staphylococcus accounted for 39.2%, Streptococcus for 23.6%, coliforms for 14.1%, Micrococcus and Bacillus species for 8.0% each and Actinomyces or Arcanobacterium (Corynebacterium) for 7.0%. It was concluded that there was a high prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis, mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli, in this study area.

bacteria breed dairy cattle diagnosis epidemiology Escherichia lactation mastitis prevalence risk factor season Staphylococcus Streptococcus 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Abdelrahim, A.I., Shommein, A.I., Suliman, H.B. and Shaddad, S.A.I., 1989. Prevalence of mastitis in imported Friesian cows in Sudan. Review of Production and Veterinary Medicine for Tropical Countries, 42, 512-514Google Scholar
  2. Barkema, H.W., Schukken, Y.H., Lam, T.J., Beiboer, M.L., Benedictus, G. and Brand, A., 1999. Management practices associated with the incidence rate of clinical mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science, 82, 1643-1654Google Scholar
  3. Bezek, D.M., 1998. Genus identification and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from cows with acute mastitis in a practice population. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 212, 404-406Google Scholar
  4. Biru, G., 1989. Major bacteria causing bovine mastitis and their sensitivity to common antibiotics. Ethiopia Journal of Agricultural Science, 11, 47-54Google Scholar
  5. Bishi, A.S., 1998. Cross-sectional and longitudinal prospective study of bovine clinical and sub-clinical mastitis in periurban and urban dairy production systems in Addis Ababa region, Ethiopia, (MSc dissertation, Addis Ababa University and Freie Universitat Berlin, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia)Google Scholar
  6. Busato, A., Trachsel, P., Schallibaum, M. and Blum, J.W., 2000. Udder health and risk factors for subclinical mastitis in organic dairy farms in Switzerland. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 44, 205-220Google Scholar
  7. Carter, G.R. and Chengappa, M.M., 1991. Bacteria. Essentials of Veterinary Bacteriology and Mycology, 4th edn, (Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia), 109-243Google Scholar
  8. Goshu, M., Kasahun, D. and Tesfaye, A., 1985. A study of the state farm. Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Science, 11, 26-30Google Scholar
  9. Hoyer, M.J., Codd, R., Bishi, A.S., Pawandiwa, A. and Usenik, E.A., 1991. The prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis in beef herds in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal, 22, 1Google Scholar
  10. Lema, M., Kassa, T. and Tegene, A., 2001. Clinically manifested major health problems of crossbred dairy herds in urban and periurban production systems in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Journal of Tropical Animal Health and Production, 33, 85-93Google Scholar
  11. Machang, U.R.S. and Muyungi, L., 1988. The occurrence of streptococci mastitis in dairy farms in Morogoro area, Tanzania. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 36, 190-193Google Scholar
  12. McDonald, J.S., 1977. Streptococcal and staphylococcal mastitis. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 170, 1157Google Scholar
  13. Miller, D.D. and Kearns, J.V., 1967. Effectiveness of the California mastitis test as a measurement of the leukocyte content of quarter samples of milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 50, 683-686Google Scholar
  14. Mohammed, A., 1996. Bacterial causes of bovine mastitis in Wondo-genet, Ethiopia. Journal of Veterinary Medicine B, 43, 379-384Google Scholar
  15. Mulei, C.M., 1999. Teat lesions their relationship to intramammary infections on small-scale dairy farms in Kiambu district in Kenya. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 70, 156-157Google Scholar
  16. Mylls, V., Asplund, K., Brofeldt, E., Hirvela-Koski, V., Honkanen-Buzalski, T., Junttila, J., Kulkas, L., Myllykangas, O., Niskanen, M., Saloniemi, H., Sandholm, M. and Saranpaa, T., 1998. Bovine mastitis in Finland in 1988 and 1995 — changes in prevalence and antimicrobial resistance. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 39, 119-126Google Scholar
  17. Petrie, A. and Watson, P., 1999. Statistics for Veterinary and Animal Science, (Blackwell Science, London), 90-137Google Scholar
  18. Radostits, O.M., Leslie, K.E. and Fetrow, J., 1994. Mastitis control in dairy herds. Herd Health Food Animal Production Medicine, 2nd edn, (W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia), 229-273Google Scholar
  19. Radostits, O.M., Blood, D.C., Gay, C.C. and Hinchcliff, K.W., 2000. Mastitis. Veterinary Medicine. A Textbook of the Diseases of Cattle, Sheep, Pigs, Goats and Horses, 9th edn, (W.B. Saunders, London), 603-700Google Scholar
  20. Sargeant, J.M., Scott, H.M., Leslie, K.E., Ireland, M.J. and Bashiri, A., 1998. Clinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Ontario: frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 39, 33-38, 240Google Scholar
  21. Schalm, O.W., Carroll, E.J. and Jain, N.C., 1971. Bovine Mastitis, (Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia), 254-256Google Scholar
  22. Vecht, U., Wisselink, H. and Defizer, P.R., 1989. Dutch national mastitis survey. The effects of herd animal factors on somatic cell count. Netherlands Milk and Dairy Journal, 43, 425-435Google Scholar
  23. Waage, S., Mork, T., Roros, A., Aasland, D., Hunshamar, A. and Odeggard, S.A., 1999. Bacteria associated with clinical mastitis in dairy heifers. Journal of Dairy Science, 82, 712-719Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. Kerro Dego
    • 1
    • 2
  • F. Tareke
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineAddis Ababa UniversityDebre ZeitEthiopia

Personalised recommendations