In this study different synthetic strategies were developed and applied to introduce solely or in combination heparin/heparansulfate-like functional groups such as N-sulfo, O-sulfo, N-acetyl, and N-carboxymethyl groups into chitosan and cellulose with highest possible regioselectivity and completeness and defined distribution along the polymer chain. Completely substituted 6-amino-6-deoxycellulose and related derivatives were prepared from tosylcellulose (DS 2.02; C6 1.0) by nucleophilic substitution with azido groups only in the 6-position at 50 °C with subsequent reduction to amino groups and completely removing tosyl groups in the 2,3-position. 2,6-Di-O-sulfocellulose was prepared using the reactivity difference between C-2, C-6 and C-3 of cellulose. The reactivity difference between amino groups and hydroxyl groups was used to prepare various N-substituted derivatives. Partially 2,6-di-O-sulfated cellulose was obtained from trimethylsilylcellulose by the insertion of sulfurtrioxide into the Si–O ether linkage. Partially 3-O-sulfocellulose was synthesized by protecting C-2 and C-6 with trifluoroacetyl groups. A copper–chitosan complex was used to synthesize 6-O-sulfochitosan with a DS of 1.0 at C-6 and various partially 6-O-desulfonated products are possible. Using the phthalimido group to increase the solubility of chitosan in DMF, the regioselectivity of 3-O-sulfo groups was improved by regioselective 6-O-desulfonation of nearly complete 3,6-O-disulfochitosan. The platelet adhesion properties of immobilized regioselectively modified water-soluble derivatives on membranes have been tested in vitro. Some regioselectively modified chitosan and cellulose derivatives are potential candidates for the surface coatings of biomaterials if the regioselective reactions are somewhat further optimized.
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Baumann, H., Liu, C. & Faust, V. Regioselectively Modified Cellulose and Chitosan Derivatives for Mono- and Multilayer Surface Coatings of Hemocompatible Biomaterials. Cellulose 10, 65–74 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023084628101
- Chitosan and cellulose chemistry
- Heparin chemistry
- Platelet adhesion tests
- Sulfation and desulfation reaction
- Systematic protection group strategy
- Temperature dependent regioselective substitution