Longitudinal Relations Among Depression, Stress, and Coping in High Risk Youth

Abstract

The structural relationships among risk and protective factors were examined in a sample of 646 continuation high school students. Although depression predicted more perceived stress, it was not a unique predictor of anger coping, seeking social support, or substance use. Perceived stress increased seeking social support. Seeking social support decreased the utilization of anger coping, which suggests that it may be a means of prevention for adolescents. Anger coping behaviors were implicated as being significant in sustaining depression and perceived stress, and in increasing hard drug use over time. Moderation analysis indicated that although there was no difference in the stress–coping–depression relationship between Latinos and Caucasians, the relationship among perceived stress, anger coping, and depression was stronger for female than for male adolescents. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

REFERENCES

  1. Aiken, L. S., Stein, J. A., and Bentler, P. M. (1994). Structural equation analyses of clinical subpopulation differences and comparative treatment outcomes: Characterizing the daily lives of drug addicts. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 62: 488–499.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Aseltine, R. H., Gore, S., and Colten, M. E. (1994). Depression and the social developmental context of adolescence. J. Pers. and Soc. Psychol. 67: 252–263.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bentler, P. M. (2001). EQS: Structural Equations Program Manual. Multivariate Software, Inc., Encino, CA.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Bentler, P. M., and Dudgeon, P. (1996). Covariance structure analysis: Statistical practice, theory, and directions. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 47: 563–592.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Berman, A. L., and Jobes, D. A. (1991). Adolescent Suicide: Assessment and Intervention. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Chou, C.-P., and Bentler, P. M. (in press). Model modification in structural equation modeling by imposing constraints. Comput. Stat. Data Anal.

  7. Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., and Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. J. Health Soc. Behav. 24: 385–396.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Cohen, S., and Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychol. Bull. 98: 310–357.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Compas, B. E., Connor-Smith, J. K., Saltzman, H., Harding Tomsen, A., and Wadsworth, M. E. (2001). Coping with stress during childhood and adolescence: Problems, progress, and potential in theory and research. Psychol. Bull. 127: 87–127.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Compas, B. E., Hinden, B. R., and Gerhardt, C. A. (1995). Adolescent development: Pathways and processes of risk and resilience. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 46: 265–93.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Compas, B. E., Oppedisano, G., Connor, J. K., Gerhardt, C. Y., Hinden, B. R., Achenbach, T. M., and Hammen, C. (1997). Gender differences in depressive symptoms in adolescence: Comparison of national samples of clinically referred and nonreferred youths. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 65: 617–626.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Cooper, M. L., Russell, M., Skinner, J. B., Frone, M. R., and Mudar, P. (1992). Stress and alcohol use: Moderating effects of gender, coping, and alcohol expectancies. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 101: 139–152.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Copeland, E. P., and Hess, R. S. (1995). Differences in young adolescents' coping strategies based on gender and ethnicity. J. Early Adolesc. 15: 203–219.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Dent, C. W., Sussman, S., and Stacy, A. (1997). The impact of a written parental consent policy on estimates from a school-based drug use survey. Eval. Rev. 21: 698–712.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Galaif, E. R., Chou, C.-P., Sussman, S., and Dent, C. W. (1998). Depression, suicidal ideation, and substance use among continuation high school students. J. Youth Adolesc. 27: 275–299.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Galaif, E. R., and Newcomb, M. D. (1999). Predictors of polydrug use among four ethnic groups: A 12-year longitudinal study. Addict. Behav. 24: 607–631.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Graham, J. W., Flay, B. R., Johnson, C. A., Hansen, W. B., Grossman, L. M., and Sobel, J. L. (1984). Reliability of self-report measures of drug use in prevention research: Evaluation of the Project SMART questionnaire via the test-retest reliability matrix. J. Drug Educ. 14: 175–193.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Harrell, A. V. (1997). The validity of self-reported drug use data: The accuracy of responses on confidential self-administered answered sheets. In Harrison, L., and Hughes, A. (Eds.), The Validity of Self-reported Drug Use: Improving the Accuracy of Survey Estimates. NIDA Research Monograph 167. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Henry, B., Feehan, M., McGee, R., Stanton, W., Moffitt, T. E., and Silva, P. (1993). The importance of conduct problems and depressive symptoms in predicting adolescent substance use. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 21: 469–480.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Koenig, L. J., Isaacs, A. M., and Schwartz, J. A. J. (1994). Sex differences in adolescent depression and loneliness: Why are boys lonelier if girls are more depressed? J. Res. Pers. 28: 27–43.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Leadbeater, B. J., Blatt, S. J., and Quinlan, D. M. (1995). Gender-linked vulnerabilities to depressive symptoms, stress, and problem behaviors in adolescents. J. Res. Adolesc. 5(1: 1–29.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Lempers, J. D., and Clark-Lempers, D. (1990). Family economic stress, maternal and paternal support and adolescent distress. J. Adolesc. 13: 217–229.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Lin, N. (1986). Conceptualizing social support and Modeling the effects of social support. In Lin, N., Dean, A., and Ensel, W. M. (eds.), Social Support, Life Events, and Depression. Academic Press, Orlando, pp. 17–18, 173–206.

    Google Scholar 

  24. McDonald, R. M., and Towberman, D. B. (1993). Psychosocial correlates of adolescent drug involvement. Adolescence 28: 925–936.

    Google Scholar 

  25. McFarlane, A. H., Bellissimo, A., Norman, G. R., and Lange, P. (1994). Adolescent depression in a school-based community sample: Preliminary findings on contributing social factors. J. Youth Adolesc. 23: 601–620.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Murray, D. M., Moskowitz, J. M., and Dent, C. W. (1996). Design and analysis issues in community-based drug abuse prevention. American Behavioral Scientist 39: 853–867.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Newcomb, M. D. (1997). General deviance and psychological distress: Impact of family support/bonding over 12 years from adolescence to adulthood. Crim. Behav. Ment. Health. 7: 369–400.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., and Girgus, J. S. (1994). The emergence of gender differences in depression during adolescence. Psychol. Bull. 115: 424–443.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl. Psychol. Meas. 1: 385–401.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Roberts, R. E., Roberts, C. R., and Chen, Y. R. (1997). Ethnocultural differences in prevalence of adolescent depression. Am. J. Community Psychol. 25: 95–110.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Sabogal, F., Marin, G., Otero-Sabogal, R., Marin, B. V., and Perez-Stable, E. J. (1987). Hispanic familism and acculturation: What changes and what doesn't? Hispanic J. Behav. Sci. 9: 397–412.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Shrout, P. E., and Yager, T. J. (1989). Reliability and validity of screening scales: Effect of reducing scale length. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 42: 69–78.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Sussman, S., Brannon, B. R., Dent, C. W., Hansen, W. B., Johnson, C. A., and Flay, B. R. (1993). Relations of coping effort, coping strategies, perceived stress, and cigarette smoking among adolescents. Int. J. Addict. 28: 599–612.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Sussman, S., Dent, C. W., Simon, T. R., Galaif, E. R., Hennesy, M., Moss, M., and Craig, S. (1996). The project TND main follow-up student questionnaire contents, description of the main study sample, and followup protocol. Technical Report #96-TND-01. University of Southern California, Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research, Alhambra.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Sussman, S., Dent C. W., Stacy, A., and Craig, S. (1998). One-year outcomes of Project Towards No Drug Abuse. Preventive Medicine 27: 632–642.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Sussman, S., Stacy, A. W., Dent, C. W., Simon, T. R., Galaif, E. R., Moss, M. A., Craig, S., and Johnson, C. A. (1995). Continuation high schools: Youth at risk for drug abuse. J. Drug Educ. 25: 191–209.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Swanson, J. W., Linskey, A. O., Quintero-Salinas, R., Pumariega, A. J., and Holzer, C. E. (1992). A binational school survey of depressive symptoms, drug use, and suicidal ideation. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry. 31: 669–678.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Vaccaro, D., and Wills, T. A. (1998). Stress-coping factors in adolescent substance use: Test of ethnic and gender differences in samples of urban adolescents. J. Drug Educ. 28: 257–280.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Vega, W. A., Zimmerman, R. S., Warheit, G. J., and Apospori, E. (1993). Risk factors for early adolescent drug use in four ethnic and racial groups. Am. J. Public Health 83: 185–189.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Wills, T. A. (1986). Stress and coping in early adolescence: Relationships to substance use in urban school samples. Health Psychol. 5: 503–529.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Wills, T. A., and Cleary, S. D. (1995). Stress-coping model for alcohol-tobacco interactions in adolescence. In Fertig, J., and Allen, J. (eds.), Alcohol and Tobacco: From Basic Science to Clinical Practice. (NIH Publication No. 95-3931). National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Wills, T. A., and Hirky, A. E. (1996). Coping and substance abuse: A theoretical model and review of the evidence. In Zeidner, M., and Endler, N. S. (eds.), Handbook of Coping: Theory, Research, and Applications. Wiley, New York, pp. 279–302.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Wills, T. A., Pierce, J. P., and Eunsir, R. I. (1996). Large-scale environmental risk factors for substance use. American Behavioral Scientist 39: 808–822.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Wills, T. A., Sandy, J. M., Yaeger, A. M., Cleary, S. D., and Shinar, O. (2002). Coping dimensions, life stress, and adolescent substance use: A latent growth analysis. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 110: 309–323.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Wills, T. A., and Shiffman, S. (1985). Coping and substance use: A conceptual framework. In Shiffman, S., and Wills, T. A. (eds.), Coping and Substance Use. Academic Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Wills, T. A., Vaccaro, D., and McNamara, G. (1992). Life events, family support, and competence in adolescent substance use. Am. J. Community Psychol. 20: 349–374.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Galaif, E.R., Sussman, S., Chou, C. et al. Longitudinal Relations Among Depression, Stress, and Coping in High Risk Youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 32, 243–258 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023028809718

Download citation

  • adolescent
  • depression
  • anger coping
  • stress
  • drug use